MOSCOW MATHEMATICAL JOURNALVolume 4, Number 1, January–March 2004, Pages 245–305
OPEN DIOPHANTINE PROBLEMS
D´edi´e `a un jeune septuag´enaire, Pierre Cartier, qui m’a beaucoup appris
Diophantine Analysis is a very active domain of mathemat-ical research where one ﬁnds more conjectures than results.We collect here a number of open questions concerning Diophantineequations (including Pillai’s Conjectures), Diophantine approximation(featuring the
Conjecture) and transcendental number theory (with,for instance, Schanuel’s Conjecture). Some questions related to Mahler’smeasure and Weil absolute logarithmic height are then considered (e.g.,Lehmer’s Problem). We also discuss Mazur’s question regarding thedensity of rational points on a variety, especially in the particular caseof algebraic groups, in connexion with transcendence problems in severalvariables. We say only a few words on metric problems, equidistributionquestions, Diophantine approximation on manifolds and Diophantineanalysis on function ﬁelds.
Math. Subj. Class.
Primary 11Jxx; Secondary 11Dxx, 11Gxx, 14Gxx.
Key words and phrases.
Diophantine problems, transcendence, linear andalgebraic independence, Schanuel conjecture, four exponential conjecture,multizeta values,
conjecture, Waring problem, Diophantine approxima-tion, continued fractions, Thue–Siegel–Roth–Schmidt, irrationality measures,Markoﬀ spectrum, height, Lehmer problem, Mazur density conjecture, abelianvarieties, special functions, function ﬁelds.
1.1. Points on Curves.
Among the 23 problems posed by Hilbert[Hi],[Gu]the
tenth one has the shortest statement.
Given a Diophantine equation with any number of unknown quan-tities and with integral numerical coeﬃcients
To devise a processaccording to which it can be determined by a ﬁnite number of oper-ations whether the equation is solvable in rational integers.
An equation of the form
) = 0, where
, ..., X
] is a given polynomial,while the unknowns
, ..., x
) take rational integer values, is a
. To solve this equation amounts to determining the integer points onthe corresponding hypersurface of the aﬃne space. Hilbert’s Tenth Problem is to
Received October 16, 2002.
2004 Independent University of Moscow