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Magnet 1

# Magnet 1

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06/24/2014

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Magnetostatics
Electric charges are source of electric ﬁelds. An electric ﬁeld exerts force on anelectric charge, whether the charge happens to be moving or at rest.One could similarly think of a magnetic charge as being the source of a magneticﬁeld. However, isolated magnetic charge ( or magnetic monopoles) have neverbeen found to exist. Magnetic poles always occur in pairs ( dipoles) – a northpole and a south pole. Thus, the region around a bar magnet is a magnetic ﬁeld.What characterizes a magnetic ﬁeld is the qualitative nature of the force that itexerts on an
electric charge
. The ﬁeld does not exert any force on a static charge.However, if the charge happens to be moving (excepting in a direction parallel tothe direction of the ﬁeld) it experiences a force in the magnetic ﬁeld.It is not necessary to invoke the presence of magnetic poles to discuss the sourceof magnetic ﬁeld. Experiments by Oersted showed that a magnetic needle getsdeﬂected in the region around a current carrying conductor. The direction of de-ﬂection is shown in the ﬁgure below.
Current into the pageCurrent out of the page
Thus a current carrying conductor is the source of a magnetic ﬁeld. In fact, amagnetic dipole can be considered as a closed current loop.
Lorentz Force :
We know that an electric ﬁeld

exerts a force
q
on a charge
q
. In the presenceof a magnetic ﬁeld
 B
, a charge
q

m
=
qv
×
 B
where
v
is the velocity of the charge. Note that1

There is no force on a charge at rest.
A force is exerted on thecharge only if there is a component of themagneticﬁeld perpendicular to the direction of the velocity, i.e.
the component of themagnetic ﬁeld parallel to
v
does not contribute to

m
.
v
·

m
= 0
, which shows that the magnetic force does not do any work.In the case where both

and
 B
are present, the force on the charge
q
is given by

=
q
(

+
v
×
 B
)
This is called
Lorentz force
after H.E. Lorentz who postulated the relationship.It may be noted that the force expression is valid even when

and
 B
are timedependent.
Unit of Magnetic Field
From the Lorentz equation, it may be seen that the unit of magnetic ﬁeld isNewton-second/coulomb-meter, which is known as a Tesla (T). (The unit is oc-casionally written as Weber/m
2
as the unit of magnetic ﬂux is known as Weber).However, Tesla is a very large unit and it is common to measure
 B
in terms of asmaller unit called Gauss,
1T = 10
4
G
It may be noted that
 B
is also referred to as magnetic ﬁeld of induction or simplyas the induction ﬁeld. However, we will use the term “magnetic ﬁeld”.
Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field
Let the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld be taken to be z- direction,
 B
=
B
ˆ
k
we can write the force on the particle to be

m
=
mdvdt
=
qv
×
 B
The problem can be looked at qualitatively as follows. We can resolve the motionof the charged particle into two components, one parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld andthe other perpendicular to it. Since the motion parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld is notaffected, the velocity component in the z-direction remains constant.
v
z
(
t
) =
v
z
(
t
= 0) =
u
z
2

where
u
is the initialvelocityof the particle. Let us denotethe velocitycomponentperpendicular to the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld by
v
. Since the force (andhence the acceleration) is perpendicular to the direction of velocity, the motion ina plane perpendicular to
 B
is a circle. The centripetal force necessary to sustainthe circular motion is provided by the Lorentz force
mv
2
R
=
|
q
|
v
B
where the radius of the circle
R
is called the Larmor radius, and is given by
R
=
mv
|
q
|
B
The time taken by the particle tocomplete one revolution is
=2
πRv
The cyclotron frequency
ω
c
is givenby
ω
c
=2
π
=
|
q
|
Bm
FVBMagnetic field into the page.BFigure shows directions of force and velocityfor a positive charge.
Motion in a Magnetic Field – Quantitative
Let the initial velocity of the particle be
u
. we may take the direction of thecomponent of
u
perpendicular to
 B
as the
x
direction, so that
u
= (
u
x
,
0
,u
z
)
Let the velocity at time
t
be denoted by
vv
=
v
x
ˆ
ı
+
v
y
ˆ

+
v
z
ˆ
k
we can express the force equation in terms of its cartesian component
mdv
x
dt
=
q
(
v
y
B
z
v
z
B
y
) =
qv
y
Bmdv
y
dt
=
q
(
v
z
B
x
v
x
B
z
) =
qv
x
Bmdv
z
dt
=
q
(
v
x
B
y
v
y
B
x
) = 0
3