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Esquenazi Appeal

Esquenazi Appeal

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Published by corruptioncurrents

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Published by: corruptioncurrents on May 10, 2012
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NO. 11-15331-CIN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALSFOR THE ELEVENTH CIRCUIT
 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,Appellee.vs.JOEL ESQUENAZIAppellantAppeal from the United States District Courtfor the Southern District of Florida
BRIEF OF APPELLANT
Michael J. Rosen (FL Bar #183719)MICHAEL J. ROSEN, P.A.2937 SW 27th Avenue, Suite 101Miami, Florida 33133Tel: 305-446-6116Email:mjr@mjrosenlaw.com Michael A. Sink (CO Bar #36064)T. Markus Funk (CO Bar #43500)PERKINS COIE LLP1900 Sixteenth Street, Suite 1400Denver, CO 80202Tel: 303-291-2300Email:msink@perkinscoie.com mfunk@perkinscoie.com ATTORNEYS FOR APPELLANTJOEL ESQUENAZI
Case: 11-15331 Date Filed: 05/09/2012 Page: 1 of 79
(1 of 345)
 
 TABLE OF CONTENTSPageiSTANDARDS OF REVIEW....................................................................................4A. Failure to Conduct a Hearing to Address Possible IssuesUnder
 Brady v. Maryland 
, 373 U.S. 83, 87 (1963)...................4B. Statutory Construction and Sufficiency of the Evidence...........4C. Jury Instructions.........................................................................5D. Sentencing Standards - Aggravating Role, Obstruction of Justice or Perjury, and Loss Amount.........................................5STATEMENT OF THE ISSUES PRESENTED FOR REVIEW............................6STATEMENT OF THE CASE.................................................................................6STATEMENT OF FACTS.....................................................................................13SUMMARY OF THE ARGUMENT.....................................................................18ARGUMENT..........................................................................................................20I. THE DISTRICT COURT ERRED WHEN IT REFUSED TOCONDUCT AN EVIDENTIARY HEARING ON
 BRADY 
 ISSUES...............................................................................................20II. ESQUENAZI IS ENTITLED TO AN ACQUITTALBECAUSE EMPLOYEES OF HAITI TELECO WERE NOTDIRECTED “FOREIGN OFFICIALS” WITHIN THEMEANING OF THE FCPA SIMPLY BECAUSE THENATIONAL BANK OF HAITI OWNED SHARES OF HAITITELECO AND THE HAITIAN GOVERNMENTAPPOINTED BOARD MEMBERS AND DIRECTORS.................25A. The FCPA Must Be Construed to Exclude PaymentsMade to State-Owned Business Enterprises that Do NotPerform Governmental Functions............................................271. The Statutory Context of the FCPA Indicates that“Instrumentality” Must Be Construed to ExcludeBoth State-Owned Business Enterprises that DoNot Perform Governmental Functions andEmployees of the Same.................................................30
Case: 11-15331 Date Filed: 05/09/2012 Page: 2 of 79
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 TABLE OF CONTENTS(continued)Pageii
 
2. In the Alternative, the FCPA’s Definition of “Foreign Official” Is Ambiguous, and Should BeConstrued to Exclude State-Owned BusinessEnterprises that Do Not Perform GovernmentalFunctions........................................................................35a. Legislative History Supports Construing theFCPA to Exclude State-Owned BusinessEnterprises that Do Not PerformGovernmental Functions. . .................................35b. The Use of the Term “Instrumentality” inOther Statutes Supports Construing theFCPA to Exclude State-Owned BusinessEnterprises that Do Not PerformGovernmental Functions. . .................................37c. The Rule of Lenity Requires the Court toConstrue the FCPA to Exclude State-Owned Business Enterprises that Do NotPerform Governmental Functions. ....................403. In the Alternative, the FCPA Is UnconstitutionallyVague as Applied to Esquenazi.....................................41B. The Government Failed to Present Any Evidence thatHaiti Teleco Performed a Governmental Function Similarto that Performed by Political Subdivisions Like aDepartment or Agency.............................................................45C. Esquenazi Is Also Entitled to Acquittal on the MoneyLaundering and Wire Transfer Counts Because TheyWere Predicated on Unproven FCPA Violations....................48III. THE JURY INSTRUCTIONS ON THE FCPA DID NOTADEQUATELY CONVEY THE REQUISITEGOVERNMENTAL FUNCTION NECESSARY TOESTABLISH THAT HAITI TELECO WAS AN“INSTRUMENTALITY” OF THE HAITIANGOVERNMENT OR ESQUENAZI’S KNOWLEDGE OFTHE SAME........................................................................................51
Case: 11-15331 Date Filed: 05/09/2012 Page: 3 of 79
(3 of 345)

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