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Antennas and Propagation

Antennas and Propagation

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Published by Deepraj Bhujel
it's useful for engineering students.
it's useful for engineering students.

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Published by: Deepraj Bhujel on May 11, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/21/2014

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Antennas and Propagation
天線 和傳播
Shou-ChihLoCSIE, Dong HwaUniversity2006 Fall
Introduction
An antenna is an electrical conductor orsystem of conductors
Transmission -radiates electromagnetic energyinto space
Reception -collects electromagnetic energyfrom space
In two-way communication, the sameantenna can be used for transmission andreception
Radiation Pattern (
幅射場型)
Graphical representation of radiationproperties of an antenna
Types of Antennas
Isotropic antenna (idealized)
等向性天線 
Radiates power equally in all directions
Dipole antennas
偶極天線 
Half-wave dipole antenna (or Hertz antenna)
Quarter-wave vertical antenna (or Marconiantenna)
Parabolic Reflective Antenna
拋物面反射天線 
 
Directed and Sectorized Antennas
Often used for microwave connections orbase stations for mobile phones
side view (xy-plane)xyside view (yz-plane)zytop view (xz-plane)xztop view, 3 sectorxztop view, 6 sectorxz
directedantennasectorizedantenna
Antenna Gain
Measure of the directionality of an antenna
Power output, in a particular direction,compared to that produced in any directionby a perfect omnidirectional antenna(isotropic antenna)
Antenna Gain
Relationship between antenna gain and effectivearea
G
= antenna gain
A
e
= effective area
= carrier frequency
c = speed of light (»3
×
10
8
m/s)
λ
= carrier wavelength
222
44
c A f  AG
ee
π λ π 
==
 
Effect Area
Related to physical size and shape of antenna
Propagation Events
Shadowing
(遮蔽)
Reflection
(反射)
at large obstacles
Refraction
(折射)
depending on the density of amedium
Scattering
(散射)
at small obstacles (<wavelength of signal)
Diffraction
(繞射)
at edges (>>wavelength of signal)
reflectionscatteringdiffractionrefractionshadowing
Propagation Modes
Ground-wave
(地波)
propagation
Sky-wave
(天波)
propagation
Line-of-sight
(視線)
propagation
Ground Wave Propagation
電磁波在地表產生感應電流,並造成靠近地表附近的波行進較緩慢

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