Heat & Mass TransferGroup # 04 Page 3
liquid flow in the same direction. Because the gas stream does not “push” against the liquid
stream as in countercurrent flow, higher gas stream velocities can be used. With higher gasstream velocities, the size of the unit can be reduced. However, cross-current or co-current spraytowers are not usually as efficient as countercurrent units. The liquid is distributed through aseries of spray nozzles. Full-cone nozzles are generally used. The full-cone nozzle generates aspray pattern that completely fills the target area. The spray angle is a function of the liquidpressure in the supply header.The quantity of liquid, normally characterized by the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G), is a key parameterin gas absorption. The (L/G) is frequently expressed in units of gallons per minute of liquiddivided by the gas flow rate in units of 1000 ACFM. Typical (L/G) ratios for spray-towerabsorbers can vary from 5 to more than 50 gallons per 1000 ACF. The (L/G) is determined bythe solubility of the contaminant in the liquid and by the mass transfer characteristics in the spraytower. Contaminant capture efficiency increases with increasing (L/G) and one important aspectof the design problem amounts to determining the optimum (L/G) required to satisfy emissionspecifications at the minimum cost.
Spray-tower absorbers are used primarily in applications
Where the gases are extremely soluble in the absorbent,
Where high pollutant removal efficiency is not required,
Where the chemical reactions in the absorbing liquid could result in salts that could causeplugging in other types of absorber vessels.
Spray towers are also used in a number of flue gas desulfurization systems.
The main advantage of spray-tower absorbers is that they are completely open.
They have no internal components except for the spray nozzles and connecting piping.
They have a very low gas-stream static pressure drop, which ranges from 1 to 3 in. W.C.(0.25 to 0.75 kPa) for the absorber vessel.
2.3 Packed-Bed Absorbers
Packed-bed absorbers are the most common absorbers used for gas removal. The absorbingliquid is dispersed over the packing material, which provides a large surface area for gas-liquidcontact. Packed beds are classified according to the relative direction of gas-to-liquid flow.