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Intelligence Paper

Intelligence Paper

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Published by Khaqan Amin

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Published by: Khaqan Amin on May 11, 2012
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INTELLIGENCE
 
Applied Psychology Page 1
1.1 Introduction
 Intelligence including the abilities for abstract thought, understanding, communication,reasoning, learning, retaining, planning, and problem solving. Intelligence is most widely studiedin humans, but has also been observed in animals and plants. Artificial intelligence is theintelligence of machines or the simulation of intelligence in machines.
1.2 History
 
Intelligence derives from the Latin verb intelligere which derives from inter-legere meaning to"pick out" or discern. A form of this verb, intellectus, became the medieval technical term forunderstanding, and a translation for the Greek philosophical term nous. This term was howeverstrongly linked to the metaphysical and cosmological theories of teleological scholasticism,including theories of the immortality of the soul, and the concept of the Active Intellect (alsoknown as the Active Intelligence). This entire approach to the study of nature was stronglyrejected by the early modern philosophers such as Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke,and David Hume, all of whom preferred the word "understanding" in their English philosophicalworks. Hobbes for example, in his Latin De Corpore, used "intellectus intelligit" (translated inthe English version as "the understanding understandeth") as a typical example of a logicalabsurdity. The term "intelligence" has therefore become less common in English languagephilosophy, but it has later been taken up (without the scholastic theories which it once implied)in more contemporary psychology.
1.3 Definition
 1.
 
A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason,plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly andlearn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending oursurroundings
 — 
"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do.2.
 
The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally,and to deal effectively with his environment.3.
 
The unique propensity of human beings to change or modify the structure of theircognitive functioning to adapt to the changing demands of a life situation.
 
INTELLIGENCE
 
Applied Psychology Page 2
2.0 Human intelligence
 Human intelligence is the collection of Abstract thought,Communication, Creativity, Emotional Intelligence,Knowledge, Learning, Memory, Problem solving, Reactiontime, Reasoning, Understanding, Visual processing.
2.1 Theories and Models
 There are many different theories that explained the differentaspects of human intelligence in one or another way. Cattell
 – 
Horn
 – 
Carroll theory, Fluid and crystallized intelligence,General intelligence factor, Intelligence quotient, Theory of multiple intelligences, Triarchic theory of intelligence, PASStheory of intelligence.
2.1.1 Catell Horn Carroll Thoery
 
Recent advances in current theory and research on the structure of human cognitive abilities haveresulted in a new empirically derived model commonly referred to as the Cattell
 – 
Horn
 – 
Carrolltheory of cognitive abilities (CHC theory). CHC theory of cognitive abilities is an amalgamationof two similar theories about the content and structure of human cognitive abilities. The first of these two theories is Gf-Gc theory (Raymond Cattell, 1941; Horn 1965), and the second is JohnBissell Carroll's (1993) Three-Stratum theory. Carroll's expansion of Gf-Gc theory to CHCtheory was developed in the course of a major survey of research over the past 60 or 70 years onthe nature, identification, and structure of human cognitive abilities. That research involved theuse of the mathematical technique known as factor analysis. In comparison to other well-knowntheories of intelligence and cognitive abilities, CHC theory is the most comprehensive andempirically supported psychometric theory of the structure of cognitive and academic abilities.The CHC model was expanded by McGrew (1997), later revised with the help of Flanagan(1998), and extended again by McGrew (2011). There are a fairly large number of distinctindividual differences in cognitive ability, and CHC theory holds that the relationships amongthem can be derived by classifying them into three different strata: stratum I, "narrow" abilities;stratum II, "broad abilities"; and stratum III, consisting of a single "general" ability.
2.1.2 Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence
Fluid intelligence or fluid reasoning is the capacity to think logically and solve problems in novelsituations, independent of acquired knowledge. It is the ability to analyze novel problems,identify patterns and relationships that underpin these problems and the extrapolation of theseusing logic. It is necessary for all logical problem solving, especially scientific, mathematical and
 
INTELLIGENCE
 
Applied Psychology Page 3
technical problem solving. Fluid reasoning includes inductive reasoning and deductivereasoning.Crystallized intelligence is the ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience. It should not beequated with memory or knowledge, but it does rely on accessing information from long-termmemory.
2.1.3 General Intelligence Factor
 The g factor, where g stands for general intelligence, is a statistic used in psychometrics to modelthe mental ability underlying results of various tests of cognitive ability. Developed in 1904 bypsychologist Charles Spearman to account for imperfect correlations in IQ tests, this model isconsidered the first theory of intelligence.Spearman observed that schoolchildren's grades across seemingly unrelated subjects werepositively correlated, and reasoned that these correlations reflected the influence of a dominantfactor, which he termed "general intelligence." He developed a model in which variations inintelligence test scores are explained by two kinds of factors: first, variables specific to eachindividual mental task: the individual abilities that would make a person more skilled at aspecific cognitive task; and second a variable g that accounts for the positive correlations acrosstests, representing general ability.
2.1.4 Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
 An intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several different standardized tests designed to assessintelligence. When modern IQ tests are constructed, the meanscore within an age group is set to 100 and the standard deviationto 15. Today almost all IQ tests adhere to the assignment of 15IQ points to each standard deviation, but this has not been thecase historically. Approximately 95% of the population hasscores within two SDs of the mean, i.e., an IQ between 70 and130.
2.1.5 Theory of Multiple Intelligence
 The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific modalities, rather than seeing itas dominated by a single general ability.Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities, and that there are only very weak correlations between these. For example, the theory predicts that a child who learns to multiplyeasily is not necessarily generally more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this

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