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Grammar of the Mondial language

Grammar of the Mondial language

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Published by Mithridates
Grammar of the international auxiliary language Mondial, created by Helge W. Heimer (1890 - 1959).
Grammar of the international auxiliary language Mondial, created by Helge W. Heimer (1890 - 1959).

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Published by: Mithridates on May 12, 2012
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09/07/2013

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Phonetics.
TheAlphabet.
1.
a,
b,
c,
d,
e,
f,
g,
h,
i,
j,
L,
m,
n,
0,
p,q,
r,s,t"u,v,x,
y,
z_
Inpropernounsandloan-words
k
and
w
alsooccur.
GeneralRemarksonthePronunciation.
(In
§§
2-6
fat-facedtypedenotesstressed
vowel.)
2.Vowelsaswellasconsonantsarepronouncedclearlyanddistinctly,andtheintonationresemblesthatwhichisfoundin,ItalianandSpanish.,Asinthesetwolanguages,thedifferencebetweenlongandshortvowelsisnotsogreatasinEnglish.Stressedvowelsinanopensyllableorfollowedbyaconsonantattheendofawordarethusonlyhalf-long:
metales,metal.
Theconsonants
[kJ,
[pl,
[t]
arepronouncedwithoutaspira-
t
i
on,
i,
e.withoutthefeebleh-soundthatisheardinEnglishafterthesesoundsbeforeavowel:
capital.
PronunciationofVowels.
3.Thevowelsare
a,e,
i,
0,
n.Theyarepronounced:
a
clearandopenasinEnglish'father':
mal,
dar,
amar.
e
half-openasinEnglish'let':
bel,
ver,
respecte.
i
pureandclearasinEnglish'machine':
il,
vin,vivar.
ohalf-openasinEnglish'not':
bon,alga,doctor.
u
asinEnglish'pull',butwithtenserroundingofthelips:
un,pur,
[umor,
Theletter
y
isaconsonant,butcanoccurasavowelinpropernounsandloan-words.
It
isthenpronouncedas
i
andisequi-valentto
i
alsoinotherrespects.
 
PHONETICS
PronunciationofConsonants.
4.
As
tothepronunciationoftheconsonants,thefollowingistobenoticed:
c
ispronounced
[t8]
before
e
and
i,
otherwise
[kJ
asinEnglish'cold':
place,civil;
but:
car,can,cultur,
dar.
ch
ispronounced
[if]
asinEnglish'Charles':
charme,riche.
g
ispronounced
[d3J
before
e
and
i,
asinEnglish'gentleman',otherwise
[g]
asinEnglish'go':
aqenie,gimnaste;
but:
cigar,guste,grande.
Inthecombinations
gue,
gui,
inwhich
u
issilent(see
§
5.4),
g
ispronounced
[g]:quera,guide.
j
ispronounced
[d3]
asinEnglish'John';itoccursonlybeforeahardvowel
(a,
0,
u):ja,jovial,juriste.
q
occursonlybefore
e
and
i
inthecombination
qu,
whichispronounced
[k]
(see
§
5.
4):
quel,question,qui.
T
ispronounceddistinctlyandwithamoretrilledsoundthaninEnglish:
surde,perle,carne,[orse,parte.
11
ispronouncedvoicelessasinEnglish'sea':
ei,
vos,
cosa,
x
ispronounced
[ks]
asinEnglish'axe':
exemple.
y
ispronounced
[j]
asinEnglish'yes':
yo,convoye,ayutar.
z
ispronounced
[ts];
itoccursonlybeforeahardvowel
(a,
0,
u):
zar,
zan,azur.
Before
[g]
and
[k],
n
ispronouncedasinEnglish'anger','rank':
hangar,longue,ancor.
Inpropernounsandloan-words,
k
ispronounced
[k]
asinEnglish'take',andwand
sh
asinEnglish'Washington'.
PronunciationofVowelCombinations.
5.
1.
Vowelcombinationswith
i
and
u
arediphthongized.1anduarethenpronouncedshortandassumeaconsonantalvalue,
i
likeiinEnglish'oil','piano',and
«
likeuinEnglish'quarter',winEnglish'now':
bien,
aliance,
opinion,sei,coi;
cuanto,auto,Europa.
2.
Whenianduarediphthongizedwitheachother,
iu
isstressedonthelastvowel,andlikewise
ai,
unless
ui
aretheonlyvowelsandstandeitherattheendofthewordorare
 
PHONETICS
3
followedonlyby
8,
inwhichcasethefirstvowelisstressed:
triumfe,ruin;
but:
lui,cui,Bui,suis.
3.I
or
u
+
anotherfollowingvowel
(a,e,
0)
arenotdiph-thongizedwhentheyaretheonlyvowelsandstandeitherattheendofthewordorarefollowedonlyby
8:
via,trio,duo;vias,trios,duos.
4.
Inthecombinations
gue,
gui,
and
que,qui,u
issilent{cf.
§4):
guera,longue,guide;quel,aiaque,qui.
5.
The
diseresis
C')
isplaced
over
s,
u,
inunstressedsyllablestodenotethattheyarenottobediphthongizedbutpronouncedaccordingtothemainrule(see
§
3):
naivitii,stoicieme.
The
diseresis
over
u.
in
thecombinations
gue,gui,
inwhich
u
isother-wisesilent,denotesthat
u
is
to
be
diphthongized:
linglliste.
o.
When
i,
u,
arestressedcontrarytotheaboverules,theytakeanaccent:
economia,naiv,heroisme,
Stress.
6.
Thestresslies:
(I)
onthelastsyllablehutoneinwordsthatendin
a
vowelors:
patre,amico,idea;patres,amicos,ideas,dodoree.
(2)onthelastsyllableinwordsthatendinanotherconsonantthan
8:
doctor,general,american.
Ad
i
phthongisalwayscountedasonesyllable:
patria;vidua;patriae,»iduas,
Theexceptionsfromtheserules,theendings
-ui
(-ita),
-ia(-eria),
aswellasanumberofisolatedcases,takeanaccent:
bonta,veritii,economia,caoaleria;
cate,avenu,
eiui,
PronunciationoftheAlphabet.
7.
a
[aJ
e
[e]
i
[i]
n
[en]
r
[er]
v(ve]b
[b]
f
rete]
j
[d3
i]
o
[0]
if
[es]
x[ekse]
c[zse]
s
[dse]
I
eel]
p
[pel
t
[te]
y
[je]
d[de]
h
[alfe]
m
[em]
q
[ku]
u[u]
z
[tseta]
Inpropernounsandloan-words
k(ka]
and
w
eve
duble].
Notealsothecombinations
ch
[tJe],gu[gel,
qu
eke),
andinpropernounsandloan-words
sh[JeJ.

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