Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
test_4_outline[1]

test_4_outline[1]

Ratings:

5.0

(1)
|Views: 73|Likes:
Published by mara5140

More info:

Published by: mara5140 on Dec 23, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/09/2014

pdf

text

original

Test 4 Outline
Kidney(Endocr ine)
Secreted hormone
From cells
Effect
Renin(Primarily)
Juxtaglomerular
cells
Activates therenin-
angiotensin systemb y
producing angiotensin I
ofangio tensinogen
Erythropoietin(EPO)Extraglomerular
mesangial cells
Stimulateer ythro c yt e
production
Calcitriol(1,25-
dihydroxyvitamin D3)
Active form ofvit a min
D3
Increase absorption of
calciumand phosphate
fromgastrointest inal
tractand kidneysinhib it
release ofPTH
Thrombopoietin
stimulates
megakaryocytesto
produceplatelets[7]

Acute Renal Failure (ARF)-rapid loss of renal fxn due to
damage to kidneys resulting in retention of nitrogenous waste
(urea and Creatinine) and non-nitrogenous waste products that
are norm excreted to the kidneys

\u2022
Incidence and Mortality
\u2022
Prevention
\u2022
Precipitating factors
o
Prerenal(causes in the blood supply):
\u2022
Hypovolemia (decreased blood volume),
usually fromshock ordeh ydra tion and
fluid loss or excessivediure tics use.
\u2022
hepatorenal syndrome in which renal
perfusion is compromised in liver failure
\u2022
vascular problems, such as
atheroembolic diseaseand renal vein
thrombosis (which can occur as a
complication of the nephrotic syndrome)
\u2022
infectionusua ll y sepsis, systemic
inflammation due to infection
o
Intrarenal(damage to the kidney itself):
\u2022
toxinsor medication (e.g. some
NSAIDs, aminoglycosideantib iotics,
iodinated contrast, lithium)
\u2022
rhabdomyolysis (breakdown of muscle
tissue) - the resultant release of
myoglobin in the blood affects the

kidney; it can be caused byinjur y
(especially crush injury and extensive
blunt trauma),stat ins,stimul ants and
some other drugs

\u2022
hemolysis (breakdown of red blood
cells) - the hemoglobin damages the

tubules; it may be caused by various
conditions such as sickle-cell disease,
and lupus erythematosus

\u2022
multiple myeloma, either due to
hypercalcemia or "cast nephropathy"
(multiple myeloma can also cause
chronic renal failure by a different
mechanism)
\u2022

acuteglo merulonephr itis which may be
due to a variety of causes, such as anti
glomerular basement membrane
disease/Goodpasture's syndrome,

Wegener's granulomatosis or acute lupus
nephritis with systemic lupus
erythematosus
o
Post renal(obstructive causes in the urinary
tract) due to:
\u2022
Medication interfering with normal
bladder emptying.
\u2022
Benign prostatic hypertrophyor prostate
cancer.
\u2022
Kidney stones.
\u2022
Due to abdominal malignancy (e.g.
ovarian cancer, colorectal cancer).
\u2022
Obstructed urinary catheter.
\u2022
Pathophysiology
o
Prerenal conditions
o
Intrarenal conditions
o
Post renal conditions
\u2022
Clinical manifestations- Metabolic Acidosis and
Hyperkalemia most serious biochemical manifestations
\u2022
DX:o
BUN, Creatinine
o
UA
o
CBC
\u2022
Medical Mgmt
o
Diuretics
o
Correct electrolyte imbalances
o
Dialysis
o
Fluid restriction
o
diet
\u2022
Nsg Dx:
o
Tissue perfusion
o
Alteration in elimination
\u2022
Nsg Interventions:
o
Pt assessment
o
VS
o
UOP
o
Labs
o
QD weights
o
Nutrition
o
Prevent systemic infection
o
Prevent comps of immobility
o
Skin and mucous membrane care
o
Assess for GI bleed
o
Assist with hemodialysis
o
Assure pt safety
o
Provide psychosocial support
o
Pt. teaching
Chronic Renal Failure
\u2022
Incidence and Mortality
\u2022
Prevention
\u2022
Precipitating factors
o
Tubulointerstitial disease
o
Glomerulonephropathies
o
Nephritic syndrome
o
Renal vascular disorders
o
Renal CA
\u2022
Pathophysiology
o
Diminished renal reserve
o
Renal insufficiency
o
End stage renal disease
o
Uremic syndrome
\u2022
Manifestations
\u2022
DX
\u2022
Med/Surg mgmt
o
Diet
o
Fluid restriction
o
Pharmacology
o
Blood product transfusion
o
Dialysis
o
Nephrostomy tubes/ nephrectomy
o
Renal transplantation
\u2022
Nsg Dx:
o
Excess fluid vol
o
Alteration in nutrition
\u2022
Nsg. Interventions
o
Pt assessment
o
VS
o
LAB
o
I/O
o
QD weight
o
Cardio pulmonary assessment
o
Adequate nutrition

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->