but problematizes identity formation. McDonald (1999: 203) argues that for many young people marginalized by globalization, their identities canno longer be constructed ‘within the imagery and culture created by pro-ducers and employers’. Drifting in a post-industrial society and stalled inadolescence, they struggle to establish coherent identities and constructiverelationships with others. Their identities ‘are propelled by contradictory social imperatives which may destroy the unity of the personality’ (Mc-Donald 1999: 204). Touraine (1997: 81) relates fragmentation and loss of identity to
, while Heelas, Lash and Morris (1996) explorethe crisis of identity in terms of the
characterizing highmodernity. Elliot (1996: 5ff.) explores ‘the ambivalence of identity’ underpostmodernity, while Kayatekin and Riccio (1998: 91) relate these pro-cesses to globalization and argue that ‘the partial, fragmented nature of such identities ... creates the possibility of imagining and participating inprojects to change’ the system. This requires an ‘imagining [of] new waysof living’, based on new identities that MacDonald (1999: 218) is optimistic will emerge as marginalized groups respond to globalization.Predictably under high modernity, a major area where there are dualcrises of identity and ‘identity’ is mental health, both in its institutionalform and its cultural representations. Increasingly, identities are seen asstalled, with society’s ‘rites of passage’ failing and crucial transitions not being made. Depression, anxiety and stress increase, and identity increas-ingly breaks down to produce ‘dissociative identity disorder’ (Kluft andFoote 1999). Central to this disorder is ‘the
splitting of identity into various parts and pieces (the
), each displaying a distinct sub-person-ality’. (Stone 1998: 330). In turn, this notion that identity can break downinto sinister ‘alters’ has spread throughout culture and ‘the idea of asecond self – of a horrible other living unrecognized within us, or loosedsomehow into the world beyond – is central to the vision of [contempor-ary] Gothic’ (Edmundson 1997: 8). In this fashion, the sense of uncer-tainty detected in the external world of the risk society is directed inwardsto create a sense of an unstable and untrustworthy self. This interrelated-ness of representations of identity in mental health and popular culture isa feature of modernity. As Gauchet and Swain (1999) show, psychiatry inthe early nineteenth century sought to provide the insane with the sense of personal identity that would incorporate them into the individualist society that was emerging. Similarly, Stone (1998), Hacking (1998) and Prager(1998) demonstrate that identity and ‘identity’ are constructions linked,psychologically, with memory in complex and unpredictable ways; and his-torically, with the rise of discourses of pathology and institutional struc-tures that make the relevant diagnoses possible. In high modernity this isexemplied by the ‘politics of victimhood’ pursued in the confessionalmode, itself an ironic reversal of Goffman’s theory of stigma, so that ‘one’shidden injury becomes the ground for a claim of
identity. Identity can be claimed ... only to the extent that it can be represented as denied,repressed, injured or excluded by others’ (Rose 1999: 268, emph.add.).
The crisis of ‘identity’ in high modernity