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L4CN :Data Link Layer

L4CN :Data Link Layer

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Published by Ahmad Shdifat
Data Link Layer by Dr. Thaier Hayajneh
Data Link Layer by Dr. Thaier Hayajneh

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Published by: Ahmad Shdifat on May 13, 2012
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05/13/2012

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Lecture 4Data Link Layer
Dr. ThaierHayajnehDepartment of Computer Engineering The Hashemite University 408450 Computer Networks, Fall 2011/2012http://www.hlms.hu.edu/
 Toics
 
Introduction
Flow control
Stop and wait
Sliding window
 
Parity
Checksums
Cyclic redundancy check (CRC)
 
rror anng
Error correction
Retransmission (
 Automatic Repeat Request
ARQ)
Stop and wait
Go-back-N
Selective reject (selective repeat)
2
 
Physical layer provides means to transfer
frames
over a link:
 
Data transmission with electromagnetic waves
Line coding (low-pass channel)
Modulation band-ass channel
Synchronization
Remaining problems to be solved
Adapt sender to receiver rate 
Errors in frames and lossage of frames should bedetected and managed
...
Header—DataTrailer8-bit8-bit 
Flow Control: Assumptions and Problems
InitialThe channel is noisy, framesmay be damaged or lostFinite capacity in the buffer 
 
Simplex Protocol
Infinite buffer 
Need for “flow control”
Stop-n-Wait protocol-Sender sends a
Good scene: data framereaches intact, acksent back . receiver 
Error freetransmission
 frame and waits for a signal in the formof a dummy frame
No seno. is,
Bad scene:
Data frame damaged or lost hence no acksender the senders end isalways ready withdata
No need for flowrequired since theline is still error free..No problems
Data frame reachesintact but Acklost .. Times
 
control....receives duplicate frames.Problem!!Solution :Keep a sequence number for each frame to distinguishbetween the new frame and a duplicate frame.
4
 
Data Link Laer: Backround 
 
Data link laer is resonsible for ho-to-ho acketdelivery (local responsibility).
Flow Control and error control are the main functions of the data link layer.
5
Line Disciline
6
Line Disciline
 
Determine the direction of communication sender to start
Two was:
Enquiry / Acknowledgment (ENQ/ACK)Dedicated line between hosts 
Poll / SelectMultipoint connections
7
ENACK
 
Dedicated line between hosts, no problem of addressin
Coordinates which device may start transmission, andif the receiver is ready and enabled
If both hosts have equal ranks, either can initiate theprocess 
terwse, ony ger-rane ost s aowe tostart the transmission request- -
8
 
ENACK
 
 
Host AHost B
 B responds eitherwith ACK or NAK
ENQ
Establishment
 
Host A tries tosend ENQ three
DataACK
times beforeconcluding that
Data
 …
DataTransfer
Host B is down
ACKEOT
Termination
9
Poll Select 
 
Multipoint connections 
Communication between secondary devices go over
Select
mode is used when primary has something to
Poll
mode is used to solicit transmissions from asecondar to the rimar ustream
Address must be contained in all packets
10
Poll Select 
 
Select mode
PrimarySec. ASec. B
SEL packetcontains address of 
SEL
B can responseeither by ACK or
ACKData
NAK
Primary sends one
ACK
or more atapackets, which areACKed b B
DataACK
11
Poll Select 
 
Poll mode
PrimarySec. ASec. B
Poll packet containsaddress of recipient 
Poll
 secondary has nodata to send, replies
NAKPoll
with NAK
Data is ACKed by
DataACK
te prmary
12

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