Titration Calculations:Revision Summary
To succeed with this topic you need to know and understand the materialcovered so far in Factsheets No. 7 (Moles and Volumetric Analysis), No.23(How to Answer Questions on Titration Calculations), No.51 (‘RedoxEquilibria (IV) : Redox Titrations’) No.57: Answering questions on RedoxTitrations 1)
The purpose of this Factsheet is to bring together all the differenttypes of titration calculations under various categories.
By now you should be competent in titration calculations. If you can nowrecognise a calculation problem as belonging to a particular category it willhelp you to get into the problem more quickly.You should regard this Factsheet as a
of all the four Factsheetslisted above. We will re-visit the basic equations and terms, and then put inthe categories.
Volumetric analysis -
this is another way of saying TITRATION i.e.adding reacting solutions together to find the exact point (the end-point) when the two solutions have completely reacted together.
Standard Solution -
a solution made by dissolving an
amountof solid in, usually, water. The volume is usually 250cm
so you can
calculate g dm
. If the
is known, you can calculate mol dm
the final volume added from the burette in the titration. Whena series of titrations are done, then titres in good agreement (concordant)are averaged to give the volume used in calculations – the
AVERAGETITRE.Acid/Base Titration -
as it says! An acidic solution reacting with abasic solution (neutralisation).
Redox Titration -
the two half equations are combined to give thebalanced chemical equation (using the ‘electron balancing method’).One of the half equations is a reduction process (electron gain) and theother an oxidation process (loss of electrons)
EQUATIONS USED IN CALCULATIONS
moles =volume (cm
M (mol dm
)1000purity percentage =mass of pure
100mass of impurepercentage by mass =mass of element
100mass of compound
CATEGORIES OF TITRATION CALCULATIONS•
categories 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 use examples from both redox and acid/ base titrations.•category 6 is usually only acid/base titration type.1Finding concentrationof a solution2.Finding the
of a compound3.Finding the
of a sample of impurecompounds4.Finding the
of acompound5.Finding the
of an element in acompound6.Using the
methodA standard solution is made andused to find the concentration of the other solution in the titration.A standard solution is made of thecompound. It is titrated with theother solution and itsconcentration, mol dm
, formed.Using: moles =g
the value of
is found.A standard solution of the impuresolid is made. Titration with theother solution enables you to findthe mass of the pure solid andhence the percentage purity.Exactly the same as (2) above, butthe
value is used to find, forexample, ‘the x in Na
O’The method is the same as for (4)above, but you find the mass of the element and hence thepercentage of it in the compound.Usually a solid is reacted with anexcess of acid. The acid left afterthe reaction is found by titratingwith a base. It is therefore possibleto find how much acid reactedwith the solid and so more aboutthe solid itself.
The examples on the next page review how to tackle each of these types of calculation - these include a mixture of acid-base and redox titrations. Thekey approach is to make sure you understand what is going on at eachstage, rather than try to remember the method "parrot fashion".
- make sure you are confident rearranging the various equations used in these calculations. Factsheet 56 (Maths for Chemists 1) gives some assistance on calculations involving percentages, and a later Factsheet will review rearrangment of formulae.