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Fault Detection and Isolation Using Unknown Input Observers with Structured Residual Generation

Fault Detection and Isolation Using Unknown Input Observers with Structured Residual Generation

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Published by ijicsjournal
International Journal of Instrumentation and Control Systems (IJICS)
International Journal of Instrumentation and Control Systems (IJICS)

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Published by: ijicsjournal on May 14, 2012
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10/01/2013

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International Journal of Instrumentation and Control Systems (IJICS) Vol.2, No.2, April 2012DOI : 10.5121/ijics.2012.2201 1
F
 AULT
D
ETECTION AND
I
SOLATION
U
SING
U
NKNOWN
I
NPUT
O
BSERVERS WITH
S
 TRUCTURED
ESIDUAL
G
ENERATION
 
Mohammad Hossein Sobhani
1
and Javad Poshtan
2,*
1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology,Tehran, Iran
hossein.sobhani@gmail.com
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology,Tehran, Iran
jposhtan@iust.ac.ir
 A
 BSTRACT 
 
 Detection and isolation of faults are important tasks for improving the reliability of process industries inorder to enhance their products quality. This paper investigates the detection and isolation of faults usingstructured residuals. Actuator and sensor faults are considered. Residuals are generated using a bank of unknown input observers (UIO). Three-tank benchmark system was used as a prototype of many processindustries. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the studied method.
 K 
 EYWORDS
 
Fault detection and isolation, Three-tank benchmark, Residual generation, Residual evaluation, Unknowninput observer 
1.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
Early detection and isolation of faults are critical tasks in modern process industries. Manyresearch works have been made during last decades to improve fault detection and isolationmethods. Extensive reviews of different fault detection and isolation methods can be found in theliterature [1-7]. Existing methods can be grouped into three general categories: quantitativemodel-based methods, qualitative model-based methods and data driven methods. Quantitativemodel-based methods have received considerable attention in recent years [8]. These approachesuse the mathematical model of the process to estimate its normal behaviour. Differences betweenthe estimated and the actual behaviour are symptoms or fault indicators. These differences arecalled residuals. Later, the residuals are evaluated aiming at to localize the fault. Although there isa close relationship among the quantitative model-based techniques, observer-based approachhave become the most popular and important method for model-based fault detection andisolation [9,10], especially within the automatic control community.
*
Corresponding author
 
International Journal of Instrumentation and Control Systems (IJICS) Vol.2, No.2, April 20122
Fault isolation can be achieved by generating structured residuals. These structured residuals canbe generated using different methods. One of the best methods for generating structured residualsis to use unknown input observers (UIO). These observers are designed such that they areinsensitive to certain faults while are sensitive to other faults in the system. Using a bank of welldesigned UIOs, faults can be detected and isolated simply with the help of the generatedresiduals.Three-tank benchmark system can be viewed as a good prototype of many industrial applicationsin process industry, such as chemical and petrochemical plants, oil and gas systems [11]. In thispaper fault detection and isolation of the three-tank benchmark system with structured residualgeneration using UIOs is studied.
2.
 
T
HREE
-T
ANK
B
ENCHMARK
S
YSTEM
 
The three-tank benchmark system has many similarities to various chemical and petrochemicalprocesses and though is a good prototype for testing different fault detection and isolationmethods in order to evaluate their performances. A simple schematic for this benchmark system isshown in Figure 1. As it can be seen this system is made of three cylindrical tanks which arenamed, from left to right, as T1, T3, and T2, respectively. These tanks are connected serially toeach other with cylindrical pipes. T2 has an outflow with another cylindrical pipe. The outflowcoefficients of these pipes are named as
13
 µ 
,
32
 µ 
, and
20
 µ 
, from left to right respectively.The typical control issue involved in this system is how to keep the desired water levels in theending tanks (T1 and T2). The manipulated control inputs are the flow rates of the two pumpsnamed P1 and P2, and are respectively pumping water in T1 and T2. The flow rates of thesepumps are controlled via their voltage inputs.
1
q
and
2
q
are respectively P1 and P2 flow ratesand
1
l
,
2
l
, and
3
l
are water levels in T1, T2, and T3 respectively. The constraints of the systeminclude the pumps maximum flow rates and maximum level of water in each tank. Each tank is
Figure 1. Basic schematic for three-tank benchmark system
 
International Journal of Instrumentation and Control Systems (IJICS) Vol.2, No.2, April 20123
equipped with a pressure sensor which gives a voltage output proportional to water level in thattank and each pump output flow rate is measured by a flow meter.Writing the mass balance equations we will get:
)()( )()()()( )()()( )(
321332032221311
qq dt dlSqqq dt dlSqq dt dlS
=+==
 Where
S
is the cross sectional area of the tanks,
13
q
and
32
q
are the flow rates between T1 andT3, and T3 and T2, respectively, and
20
q
is the outflow from T2. These flow rates are notmeasured but can be computed using the Torriceli-rule:
)(2)( )()(2)]()(sgn[)( )()(2)]()(sgn[)(
2202023233232 31311313
glSnq llgllSnq llgllSnq
×=××= ××=
 µ  µ  µ 
 Where
Sn
is the cross sectional area of the connecting pipes and
g
is the earth gravity constant.Using equations (1) and (2) we can write the nonlinear state space model of the system asfollows:
)()( ))(),(( )(
 x y u x f  dt dx
==
 Where
[ ]
lll x y
321
)()(
==
and
[ ]
qqu
21
)(
=
.
3.
 
U
NKNOWN
I
NPUT
O
BSERVERS
 
Using unknown input observers (UIO) is one of the best ways to generate structured residuals forfault detection and isolation [12]. This class of observers are designed so that they are insensitiveto some certain disturbances which we know how they affect the system but we do not know thedisturbances themselves. This way UIOs are best suitable for generation of robust structuredresiduals in order to detect and isolate faults.The UIO is a generalization of the Luenberger observer [13] which is used here for fault detectionand isolation.Considering that the fault may occur because of the failure of the system equipments such assensors and actuators, or some unknown disturbances, the state space representation of the systemcan be written as follows:
(1)(2)(3)

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