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kannada

kannada

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INTRODUCTION
0. Introduction
There is a dramatic increase in the quantum of knowledge and information resulting in increasein the production of books and other multimedia communication materials including CompactDiscs - Read Only Memory (CD-ROM). These repositories of knowledge are the bridges between information generators and the information users . The success of such a repository iscompletely dependent upon how tactfully the recorded knowledge is well organized andretrieved.Classification and indexing is an efficient method of organizing materials subject wise. Such anarrangement is most useful for effective retrieval of the kind of information required by the patrons and the information scientists serving them. As an aid to this work there are so manysystematic indexing languages like Dewey Decimal Classification, Universal DecimalClassification etc. The significant contribution from India to this field is Colon Classificationdeveloped by Dr.S.R.Ranganathan (SRR).
0.1. Need and Importance of the Study
An Indexing Language (IL) is a technical language based on the structure and functioning of a Natural Language (NL). Development of an IL in a NL is part of the development of a NL.Most of the existing and available ILs are rendered or based upon English. Many ILs are alsoavailable in some other languages like French, German, Chinese, Italian etc.Though India is rich with 1652 mother tongues, out of which 18 are Scheduled Languagesincluded in the Constitution of India, there is a paucity in development of ILs in Indianlanguages. It is ideal that every language has its own IL and at least a family of languages havean IL.Karnataka, one of the States of the Union of India was formed on linguistic basis on Novembw1, 1956. The Karnataka Official Language Act 1963 recognized Kannada as its Officiallanguage. This gave a fillip for the extensive use of it in administration, education and masscommunication. The Government, voluntary organizations, institutions and universities aremaking all round efforts to develop it as an effective medium of communication for all the purposes. However, for want of adequate and appropriate research in Indian languages in thearea of IL, libraries and information centers are adopting English coinage as they are withoutany alternatives or modified formulation to meet the linguistic and cultural needs.The structure of Indian languages in general is different from that of English. Hence, they needan IL , each derived on the basis of their structure. Since India is a multilingual country and isconsidered as a linguistic area , the comprehensive rules derived in developing an IL inKannada can be applied to other Dravidian languages and also to all other Indian languages.This study of preparation of a module has utilitarian value to prepare the pre-coordinate IL inKannada in particular and other Indian languages in general.The glossary had to be prepared , since there is no authority or subject heading list in Kannadalike Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) and the Sears List of Subject Headings inEnglish.
0.2. Definition of the Concepts
 
The following are the operational definitions of some of the important technical terms used inthe study.
Natural Language:
The NL is the primary medium for human communication . Function of a NL is to communicate semantic content of its expression directly.
Indexing Language:
The IL is an artificial language made up of expressions connectingseveral kernel terms. The function of an IL is to take whatever a NL does and in additionorganize the semantic content through a different expression providing a point of access to theseekers of information. An IL is a system for naming subjects and has controlled vocabulary.The vocabulary of an IL may be verbal or coded. A classification scheme uses codedvocabulary in the form of notation and authority lists uses verbal vocabulary.
Kannada:
Kannada is one of the 1652 mother tongues spoken in India. Forty three million people use it as their mother tongue. It is also one of the 18 Scheduled Languages included inthe VIII Schedule of the Constitution of India. It belongs to the Dravidian family of languages.Within Dravidian, it belongs to the South Dravidian group. It is recognized as the OfficialLanguage of Karnataka.
Interdisciplinary Subject:
A subject that emerges as a result of interaction between twoknown, well demarcated disciplines.
Infolinguistics:
An interdisciplinary subject that has emerged out of the interaction betweenthe two subjects - information science and linguistics.
Linguistics:
Linguistics is considered as scientific study of language.
Linguistic Area:
A geographical region determined by shared linguistic characteristics.
0.3. Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are as follows:1.Exploring the possibility of interdisciplinary perspective between linguistics andinformation science since linguistics is used as a representation mechanism for theinformation content of the document.2.Study of different linguistic theories and their relevance and application to indexinglanguage.3.Study of properties of Kannada relevant to indexing language.4.Survey of technical literature in Kannada, its use for the preparation of a model glossaryon education using a bibliometric law.5.Study of different steps in coining the subject headings and problems involved inderiving the descriptors in Kannada.6.Study of feasibility of application of computers for developing IL.7.Application of TG to the NL approach of IL and developing parsers.8.Preparation of a sample PCIL module in Kannada.
0.4. Hypothesis and Methodology
The major hypothesis on which the research is conceived are as follows:1.The need for pre-coordinate indexing language is much felt in Indian languages.
 
2.The concepts of IL can be analyzed in a proper perspective with the knowledge of linguistics.3.Any language, natural or artificial has its structure and vocabulary.4.The pre-coordinate indexing language model derived for Kannada is applicable to allthe Indian languages in general and in particular to Dravidian languages.5.The word order of Dravidian languages tallies with the facet structure of IL proposed by SRR in his Colon Classification.6.The use of computer in developing IL,reduces,minimizes the size and quantum oterminology besides simplifying the procedure of indexing,analyzing and problemsolving.7.Depending upon the need and the purpose, the parsers have to be developed in thenatural language processing environment. The definition Paser may also changedepending upon the pupose.8.Generally the IL is free from verbs and and it needs parsers to identify the NounPhrase(NP) instead of both Nps and Verb Phrase(VP). The following are themethodologies adopted in the present study.Historical metho of IL; survey metho thatinvolves the sociolinguistic study of Kannada background; logical method that involvescomparative approach to Kannada and English; statistical method to compile glossary;questionnaire method for eliciting document titles; application of linguistic theories andthe use of computerstodevelop parsersin the NLP environment. The freely faceted or analytico synthetic classification system,namely the Colon Classification ,the brainchild of S R Ranganathan having the prevalent research on general theory of classification and the techniques from transformational grammar expounded by NoamChomsky are used as the basis in designing the IL model in Kannada.
0.5. Scope and Limitations
The dimension of IL is so vast that it monitors the whole of universe of subjects. The presentstudy to prepare an IL model in Kannada is limited to a sample in the discipline 'Education',which concentrates on 'Special Isolate' part.of Colon Classification Some of the rules areretained depending upon their suitability to Kannada language. Similarly , for analyzingdocument titles in Kannada and to develop parsers in NLP environment, Chomskian school of thought is adopted . As for as computer application is concerned, out of the softwares availablefor processing Kannada, 'Bhasha' and 'Kavitha' software are used for word processing andindexing respectively. Since the present study deals with 'words', the bibliometric modeladopted here is the 'Zipf's Law' and the CDS\ISIS package for creating inverted file.
0.6. Chapterization
The chapterization is done in such a way , that it first gives an introduction on IL in generalfollowed by theories of linguistics and finally the way in which the linguistic theory could be practically applied to IL . Chapter one provides the introduction. Chapter two and three providethe methodology . The methodology : adopted from linguistics is transformational grammar,discussed in Chapter two and from information science, Colon Classification discussed inChapter three. The basic objective of the present study is to prepare an IL module inKannada..It has to be derived on the basis of structure and properties of Kannada including thetechnical terminology and rules for generating subject headings. They are discussed in Chaptersfour five and six. Analysis and interpretation of the data is presented in Chapters seven andeight. The last Chapter presents the inference and findings.
0.6.1. Chapter One: Index and Indexing Language

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