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New Microsoft Office Word Document (2)

New Microsoft Office Word Document (2)

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Published by Dash Tomar

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Published by: Dash Tomar on May 14, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 An automatic fire alarm system is designed todetect the unwanted presence of fire bymonitoring environmental changes associatedwith combustion. In general, a fire alarm system isclassified as either automatically actuated,manually actuated, or both. Automatic fire alarmsystems are intended to notify the buildingoccupants to evacuate in the event of a fire orother emergency, report the event to an off-premises location in order to summon emergencyservices, and to prepare the structure andassociated systems to control the spread of fireand smoke.
The first automatic electric fire alarm wasinvented in 1890 by Francis Robbins Upton (U.S.patent no. 436,961). Upton was an associate of Thomas Edison, but there is no evidence thatEdison contributed to this project.George Andrew Darby patented the first electricalHeat detector and Smoke detector in 1902 inBirmingham, England.In the late 1930s the Swiss physicist Walter Jaegertried to invent a sensor for poison gas. Heexpected that gas entering the sensor would bindto ionized air molecules and thereby alter anelectric current in a circuit in the instrument. Hisdevice failed: small concentrations of gas had no
effect on the sensor's conductivity. Frustrated,Jaeger lit a cigarette
and was soon surprised tonotice that a meter on the instrument hadregistered a drop in current. Smoke particles hadapparently done what poison gas could not.Jaeger's experiment was one of the advances thatpaved the way for the modern smoke detector.It was 30 years, however, before progress innuclear chemistry and solid-state electronicsmade a cheap sensor possible. While homesmoke detectors were available during most of the 1960s, the price of these devices was ratherhigh. Before that, alarms were so expensive thatonly major businesses and theaters could affordthem.

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