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CFC: Mediterranean Basin Review, 08 May 2012.

CFC: Mediterranean Basin Review, 08 May 2012.

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Published by CFC Cimicweb
This document provides an overview of developments in the Mediterranean Basin and other regions of interest from 01 May —07 May, with hyperlinks to source material highlighted and underlined in the text.
This document provides an overview of developments in the Mediterranean Basin and other regions of interest from 01 May —07 May, with hyperlinks to source material highlighted and underlined in the text.

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Published by: CFC Cimicweb on May 14, 2012
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Mediterranean Review
In Focus 1HoA: Land & Sea 2North Africa 4Northeast Africa 6Syria 8
The Civil-Military Fusion Centre(CFC) is an information and knowledge managementorganisation focused on improvingcivil-military interaction,facilitating information sharing and enhancing situational awarenessthrough theCimicWeb portal and  our weekly and monthlypublications.CFC products link to and are based on open-source information from awide variety of organisations,research centres and media sources.However, the CFC does notendorse and cannot necessarilyguarantee the accuracy orobjectivity of these sources.
CFC publications areindependently producedby Desk Officers and donot reflect NATO policiesor positions of any otherorganisation.
The CFC is part of NATO Allied Command Operations.For further information, contact:
Med Basin Team Lead
Linda LavenderLinda.Lavender@cimicweb.org 
The Mediterranean Team
This document provides an overview of developments
in the Mediterranean Basin and other regions of interest from 01 May
07 May
 , with hyperlinks to source material highlighted and underlined in thetext. For more information on the topics below or other issues pertaining to the region, please contact themembers of the Med Basin Team, or visit our website atwww.cimicweb.org. 
May 8, 2012
 In Focus
: The Prosecution of a Somali Pirate
By Britta Rinehard
Somali Mohammad Saaili Shibin, thelead negotiator  for the pirates on theMV Marida Marguerite  and theyacht Quest was convicted after a two
week trial on 15 counts of piracy
related charges ina US federal court on 27 April. These charges included hostage taking, kidnapping and conspiracyrelating to involvement in the MV Marida Marguerite and the SV Quest. According to US attorney Neil MacBride, Shibin’s conviction marks the successful prosecution of thehighest
ranking Soma-li pirate ever brought to the United States. Shibin was among “an elite fraternity of pirate negotia-tors – the vital link to any successful pirate attack”. Without his skillfull negotiation, there would be no ransom, remarked MacBride. His sentencing is scheduled for 13 August 2012, where hecould face life in prison, according to
Chicago Press Release Services.
Pirating of the MV Marida Marguerite
The MV Marida Marguerite, a Marshall Islands
owned chemical tanker, was en route from Mum- bai to the Suez Canal on 08 May 2010, when pirate skiffsapproached the ship and fired automatic weapons and rock-et propelled grenades before boarding the tanker .The pi- rates hijacked the ship and its crew 120 miles off the coastof Oman and forced the ship’s captain, Mahadeo Makane,to steer the ship towards Somalia. They anchoredoff thecoast of Garacad, in Puntland’s Mudug region. The 22
member crew included two Bangladeshi, 19 Indian and oneUkrainian. Details of the crewmembers’ ordeal wereshared during Shibin’s trial. (
continued on page 10)
Horn of Africa: Land & Sea
Britta Rinehard
Page 2
08 May 2012
A report by the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) states that Eritrea is theworld’s most restrictive nation for media, followed by  North Korea, Syria and Iran. CPJ further found that these countries are among the ten countries most notable “for barring internation-al media, putting dictatorial controls on domestic media and imposing” other restrictions on electronic recording and blocking of websites. In addition, there is often an absence of privately owned or independent media, as well as restrictions on the movements of  journalists. CPJ further stated that Eritrea has denied access to foreign reporters and the government controls all domestic media.
reports thatEthiopia expelled two Arabs after the two men visited the Grand Anwar Mosque in the capital and “disseminated materials and made inflammatory statements”. A Muslim religious leader in the Oromia region was arrested by Ethiopian securityforces one week prior, accused of radical statements. An attempt by a group of Muslims to free him resulted in the deaths of four demonstrators and the wounding of 10 policemen. Ethiopia’s Federal Ministry has since issued a statement accusing the group of trying to declare jihad against the government.
US President Barack Obama has invitedfour African leaders,including Ethiopia’s Prime Minister Meles Zenawi, to participate in a session on food security during the G8 leaders’ summit, reports
. The working session will take place at Camp David on 19May and the agenda includes discussion on food security concerns in Africa considering that the United Nations’ (UN) food priceindex, which measures monthly price changes for cereals, oilseeds, dairy, meat and sugar,remains relatively high.Eskinder Nega, an imprisoned Ethiopian Journalist and blogger,was honoured with PEN America’s “Freedom to Write” award, states
. Nega opened his first newspaper,
, in 1993 and had been publishing articles critical of the government. The paper was open only briefly before being shut down by Ethiopian authorities. Nega was arrested on 14 September 2011 and a judge foundhim guilty on terror charges on 23 January 2012. He “could face the death penalty for advocating peaceful protests” in Ethiopia. Un-der Ethiopia’s anti
terrorism proclamation last year, the government has arrested almost 200 journalists and opposition politicians. Inthe last decade, “more journalists have fled Ethiopia than any other country in the world”, reports CPJ. On 04 May 2012, CPJ reportsthat Temesghen Desalegn, editor of 
an independent Ethiopian newspaper,was sentenced to a fine of USD 113 and a suspend- ed four 
month prison term for contempt of judiciary charges.
, published Nega’s courtroom statement from his hearing on 28March, where he declared his innocence and questioned the “independence of the court and the fairness of the proceedings”.
According to a 65
 page Human Rights Watch (HRW)report,Kenyan Defence Forces and police arbitrarily arrestedand mistreated  Kenyan citizens and Somali refugees between November 2011 and March 2012 in the North Eastern province. These abuses werecommitted in response to attacks by militants suspected of links to al Shabaab who had attacked security forces as well as civilians.HRW asserts that instead of conducting an investigation of the attacks, the Kenyan Defence Forces and the police responded withviolence against civilians in the area. HRW interviewed 35 Kenyan citizens and 20 Somali refugees in the Dadaab camp, all victimsof the security forces’ abuse. According to the article, the victims report rape and attempted sexual assault, beatings, arbitrary deten-tion, extortion, looting and destruction of property, and other forms of physical abuse. The HRW report also notes that Somalia’sTransitional Federal Government (TFG) troops are accused of being involved in beating more than 115 civilians in Mandera, a townclose to the Somali border. The Kenyan government has promised to investigate the abuses but no arrests on these allegations have been made.
According to a 15 April 2012 UNHCR report, the Dadaab refugee camp nowhosts 464,380 people, , Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki, urges the international community, in cooperation with UNHCR, to helpfacilitate repatriation of Somali refugees, reports
Shabelle Media Network 
. The president stated that they have hosted more than 630,000 Somali refugees in the Dadaab camp, which isa population that is not sustainable and creates a strain to the available resources. Kibaki said that the refugees can go back to areasfree of al Shabaab and other safe areas in Somalia, thanks to the efforts of the African Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), Kenya De-fence Forces and the TFG. Kibaki further calls on the international community to support the “Somali people to stabilize and recon-struct their country”.
In order toincrease security and expand TFG control outside the capital, the United States is stepping up its training of Ugandan troops who will join the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), reports
. The United States assists in the funding of the AMISOM force and provides assistance to the transitional governmental institutions in Somalia. According to the UN the TFG’smandate is ending on 20 August 2012, reports the
UN News Centre
. A committee of the Traditional Elders was formed to select the
Page 3
08 May 2012
Have a question on the Horn of Africa: Land & Sea?Submit an RFI or recommend a topic for future
In Focus
coverage.Contact us atMediterranean@cimicweb.org or visit us online at www.cimicweb.org
We look forward to hearing from you!
1,000 members who will serve in the Constituent Assembly, which is tasked with drafting a new constitution, as well as in the newParliament. On 01 May, AMISON, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and the United Nations issued a warn-ing that “individual groups are jeopardising the roadmap for ending the transition”, noting that those groups which do not comply or  who actively obstruct the roadmap will be referred to the IGAD Council of Ministers, and that anyone obstructing the peace processcould face sanctions and restrictions. The Somalia Roadmap was established in September 2011 and its implementation is in pro-gress.UNICEF saysit appealed for USD 289 million to deliver projects in Somalia in 2012 but has thus far only raised USD 30 million. In order to prevent more than 325,000 Somali children from dying due to malnutrition, they need to close their funding gap. Critical programmes such as water, health, nutrition, education and protection might have to be cut due to lack of funds. In addition, southand central Somalia remain insecure and many humanitarian actors are still banned by al Shabaab from working in that region. Citi-zens are still struggling with the aftermath of last year’s drought, poor rain and increase of internally displaced persons (IDPs).Farhan Jeemis Abdulle, a 27
year old journalist for Radio Daljir was killed near Galkayo on 02 May, writes Reporters Without Bor- ders. Since 2007, more than 30 journalists have been murdered in Somalia. According to CPJ, Abdulle is the fifth journalist to bekilled in Somalia this year, making it thesecond deadliest country for the media after Syria. On 03 May, dozens of Somali journal- ists met in Mogadishuto commemorate World Press Freedom Day, and remembered Abdulle, reports
The Bari regional football committee brought together about 280 youths from different districts to play football in Bosaso, in the semi
autonomous region of Puntland, states
Somalia Report 
. These districts are well
known pirate areas and volatile security situa-tion. In addition to creating friendships, the goal of the tournament was to encourage the players to refrain from joining pirates.
Somali Piracy
Three Somali pirates, who were charged withfatally shooting four Americans on
 board the yacht Quest in February 2011, mightface the death penalty, writes
 AP (See also In Focus, “Prosecution of a Somali Pirates”).
reports oncomments made during a luncheon in London by Clay Maitland in regards to Somali piracy. Maitland is the managing director of International Registries, Inc. (IRI), the third largest vessel registry, which manages 2,634 Marshall Islands
 flagged vessels. Maitland calls for a global convention for the Suppression of Piracy, “setting legal parameters for using lethal forceand making arrests” and also enabling pirates to be tried at The Hague.India has allowed the Italian tanker Enrica Lexieto leavethe country after being detained since February, when two Italian Marinesaboard the vessel killed two Indian fishermen, mistaking them for Somali pirates, reports
. The two marines remain in custodyon murder charges. The incident took place off the coast of India on the high seas and Italy maintains that that its forces cannot becharged under Indian law.Seven Indian crewmembers of therecently released Enrica Ievoli, arrived in Mumbai after four months in captivity, reports
. Theship and its 18 crewmembers, comprising seven Indians, six Italians and five Ukrainians, had been hijacked on 27 December 2011off the coast of Oman. Some of the Indian crewmembers recount their ordeal, providing details on the hijacking and their time incaptivity.The Office of Naval Research (ONR) is sponsoring the Piracy Massive Multiplayer Online Wargame Leveraging the Internet(MMOWGLI)2012 game,which is now available toinvited experts from the maritime piracy field. The Naval Postgraduate School has developed the game with the goal of “building a community for long
term collaboration, exploring idea possibilities and com- paring alternative action plans”.
Gulf of Guinea Piracy
The BW Rhine, a product tanker, and its 24 crewmemberswere released on 04 May, reports
 Agence France
 Presse (AFP).
Thetanker, which was carrying gasoline, was hijacked by pirates on 28 April, while at a patrolled anchorage off Lome, Togo. Accordingto
, some of thefuel was siphoned. 
Global Piracy
The Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP) states that theUnited Kingdom became theeighteenth Contracting Party.Although the UK is not located in Asia, it has a “strong interest in the regional maritime economy and supports fully the ReCAAP aims of enhancing multilateral cooperation among its members”. Inorder to effectively address the piracy and armed robbery issue in Asia, international cooperation is vital.

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