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The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire

The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire

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Published by Vishnu Arya
The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire

Alexander Berzin, 1996
lightly revised, January 2003, December 2006
Introduction: Historiographical Bias
Part I: The Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750 CE)
1 The Spread of Buddhism in Central Asia and Adjacent Regions before the Advent of the Arabs
Geography
West and East Turkistan
Han China
The Eastern and Western Turk Empires
The Situation of Buddhism in West Turkistan at the Advent of the Western Turks
The Decline of the Western Turks
Tibet
Gangetic India
Kashmir and Nepal
Summary
2 Sogdia and Bactria on the Eve of the Umayyad Period
Zoroastrian Relations with Buddhism
Zurvanism
White Hun Rule and Its Aftermath in Sogdia
Bactria
Gandhara
Summary
3 The First Encounter of the Muslims and Buddhist Asia
The Pre-Islamic Presence of Buddhism in North Africa and West Asia
The Establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Attack on Bactria
Previous Umayyad Experience with Non-Muslims in Iran
The Slow Advance of the Umayyids into Southern Sogdia
Summary
4 The First Muslim Incursion into the Indian Subcontinent
The Situation of the East-West Trade Routes
The Invasion of Sindh
The Occupation of Sindh
The Expedition to Saurashtra
Evaluation of the Sindhi Campaign
The Umayyad Recapture of Bactria
First Attempts to Spread Islam
5 Tibet on the Eve of the Arrival of the First Muslim Teacher
The Organized Bon Religion and the Native Tibetan Tradition
Songtsen-gampo’s Relation with Zhang-zhung
The Introduction of Buddhism
Adaptation of the Khotanese Script
The So-Called "Bon" Opposition Faction
The Reigns of the Following Two Tibetan Emperors
The Rule of Empresses
The Tibetan-Umayyad Alliance
Analysis of the Muslim Mission to Tibet
Refugee Monks from Khotan in Tibet
6 Further Umayyad Expansion in West Turkistan
The Shifting of Alliances and Control of Territories
The Reassertion of Umayyad Rule in Sindh
Umayyad Loss and Regaining of Sogdia
Analysis of the Tang Attacks on Umayyad-Held Sogdia
The Invitation of Sogdians to Mongolia and Their Subsequent Eviction
The Manichaean Factor
The Expulsion of Non-Han Buddhist Monastics from Tang China
Final Events of the Umayyad Period
Part II: The Early Abbasid Period (750 - Mid-Ninth Century CE)
7 The Rise of the Abbasids and Decline of Tang China
The Regional Context
The Founding of the Abbasid Caliphate
The Defeat of Tang China and the An Lushan Rebellion
8 The Religious Conversions of the Eastern Turks
First Contacts with Buddhism
The Adoption of the Sogdian Language for Secular Use
Religious Persecution in Han China and Sogdia
The First Written Translations of Buddhist Texts into Tocharian
The Sogdian Forgoing of Translating Buddhist Texts into Their Own Language at This Time
The Translation of Buddhist Texts into Old Turk
Analysis and Summary
9 The Religious Conversions of the Uighurs
The Initial Choice of Buddhism
Doubts about Buddhism in Face of Developments in Tang China and Tibet
Reasons for Choosing Manichaeism: The Wish to Maintain Friendly Relations with Tang China
Economic Benefits and Geopolitics
The Conversion to Manichaeism
Popular Resistance to the Conversion
Summary of the Central Asian Pattern of Religious Conversion
10 Islamic Sectarian Disputes and the Declaration of Jihads
Sectarian Discord within Islam during the Early Abbasid Period
The Abbasid Destruction of Valabhi
The Difference in Policy toward Manichaeism and Other Non-Muslim Religions
The Strong Interest of the Abbasids in Indian Culture
The Growth of Islam among Non-Muslims in West Turkistan
Evaluation of the Destruction of Valabhi
The Abbasid Invasion of Gandhara
Analysis of the Abbasid Campaign and Victory
11 Tibetan Politico-Religious Maneuverings at the End of the Eighth Century
Tibetan Relations with China
The Invitation of Shantarakshita to Tibet
The Building of Samyay Monastery
Cultural Contacts with China
The Completion of Samyay Monastery
Peace with China and Establishment of the Tibetan Religious Council
Analysis of t
The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire

Alexander Berzin, 1996
lightly revised, January 2003, December 2006
Introduction: Historiographical Bias
Part I: The Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750 CE)
1 The Spread of Buddhism in Central Asia and Adjacent Regions before the Advent of the Arabs
Geography
West and East Turkistan
Han China
The Eastern and Western Turk Empires
The Situation of Buddhism in West Turkistan at the Advent of the Western Turks
The Decline of the Western Turks
Tibet
Gangetic India
Kashmir and Nepal
Summary
2 Sogdia and Bactria on the Eve of the Umayyad Period
Zoroastrian Relations with Buddhism
Zurvanism
White Hun Rule and Its Aftermath in Sogdia
Bactria
Gandhara
Summary
3 The First Encounter of the Muslims and Buddhist Asia
The Pre-Islamic Presence of Buddhism in North Africa and West Asia
The Establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Attack on Bactria
Previous Umayyad Experience with Non-Muslims in Iran
The Slow Advance of the Umayyids into Southern Sogdia
Summary
4 The First Muslim Incursion into the Indian Subcontinent
The Situation of the East-West Trade Routes
The Invasion of Sindh
The Occupation of Sindh
The Expedition to Saurashtra
Evaluation of the Sindhi Campaign
The Umayyad Recapture of Bactria
First Attempts to Spread Islam
5 Tibet on the Eve of the Arrival of the First Muslim Teacher
The Organized Bon Religion and the Native Tibetan Tradition
Songtsen-gampo’s Relation with Zhang-zhung
The Introduction of Buddhism
Adaptation of the Khotanese Script
The So-Called "Bon" Opposition Faction
The Reigns of the Following Two Tibetan Emperors
The Rule of Empresses
The Tibetan-Umayyad Alliance
Analysis of the Muslim Mission to Tibet
Refugee Monks from Khotan in Tibet
6 Further Umayyad Expansion in West Turkistan
The Shifting of Alliances and Control of Territories
The Reassertion of Umayyad Rule in Sindh
Umayyad Loss and Regaining of Sogdia
Analysis of the Tang Attacks on Umayyad-Held Sogdia
The Invitation of Sogdians to Mongolia and Their Subsequent Eviction
The Manichaean Factor
The Expulsion of Non-Han Buddhist Monastics from Tang China
Final Events of the Umayyad Period
Part II: The Early Abbasid Period (750 - Mid-Ninth Century CE)
7 The Rise of the Abbasids and Decline of Tang China
The Regional Context
The Founding of the Abbasid Caliphate
The Defeat of Tang China and the An Lushan Rebellion
8 The Religious Conversions of the Eastern Turks
First Contacts with Buddhism
The Adoption of the Sogdian Language for Secular Use
Religious Persecution in Han China and Sogdia
The First Written Translations of Buddhist Texts into Tocharian
The Sogdian Forgoing of Translating Buddhist Texts into Their Own Language at This Time
The Translation of Buddhist Texts into Old Turk
Analysis and Summary
9 The Religious Conversions of the Uighurs
The Initial Choice of Buddhism
Doubts about Buddhism in Face of Developments in Tang China and Tibet
Reasons for Choosing Manichaeism: The Wish to Maintain Friendly Relations with Tang China
Economic Benefits and Geopolitics
The Conversion to Manichaeism
Popular Resistance to the Conversion
Summary of the Central Asian Pattern of Religious Conversion
10 Islamic Sectarian Disputes and the Declaration of Jihads
Sectarian Discord within Islam during the Early Abbasid Period
The Abbasid Destruction of Valabhi
The Difference in Policy toward Manichaeism and Other Non-Muslim Religions
The Strong Interest of the Abbasids in Indian Culture
The Growth of Islam among Non-Muslims in West Turkistan
Evaluation of the Destruction of Valabhi
The Abbasid Invasion of Gandhara
Analysis of the Abbasid Campaign and Victory
11 Tibetan Politico-Religious Maneuverings at the End of the Eighth Century
Tibetan Relations with China
The Invitation of Shantarakshita to Tibet
The Building of Samyay Monastery
Cultural Contacts with China
The Completion of Samyay Monastery
Peace with China and Establishment of the Tibetan Religious Council
Analysis of t

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Published by: Vishnu Arya on May 14, 2012
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