CONTROL DESIGN FOR FUTURE AGILE FIGHTERS
Patrick C. Murphy, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
John B. Davidson, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
The CRAFT control design methodology is presented.CRAFT stands for the design objectives addressed, namely,Control power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying QualitiesTradeoffs. The approach combines eigenspace assignment,which allows for direct specification of eigenvalues andeigenvectors, and a graphical approach for representingcontrol design metrics that captures numerous design goalsin one composite illustration. The methodology makes useof control design metrics from four design objective areas,namely, control power, robustness, agility, and flyingqualities. An example of the CRAFT methodology as wellas associated design issues are presented. Control designmetrics are evaluated for systematic eigenvalue placementsover the complex plane. Metric surfaces are formed by plotting metric values for each of the frequency anddamping points specified. Graphical overlays of the metricsurfaces are then used to show the best design compromisefor a variety of design criteria. Since the sensitivity of themetrics to pole placement is clearly displayed, the designer can assess the cost of tradeoffs. This approach enhances thedesigner's ability to make informed design tradeoffs and toreach effective final designs.
Aplant matrixBcontrol distribution matrix for statesCstate distribution matrix for outputsDcontrol distribution matrix for outputsEuncertainty modelgfeedback gainGfeedback gain matrixGMgain metric based on sum of squares of gainsIidentity matrixKplant compensationKGloop transfer matrixLmatrix defining achievable subspace for
Mstate distribution matrix for measurementsmnumber of controls Ncontrol distribution matrix for measurementsnnumber of states pnumber of outputsqpitch rate, rad/sec.rnumber of measurementssLaplace variable, s=j
Tscale matrixUcontrol vector (mx1)
Aerospace Engineer, Member AIAAVmatrix of eigenvectorsVotrim velocity, fps.wdesired eigenvector projection vector Wmatrix of wicolumnsXstate vector (nx1)Youtput vector (px1)Zmeasurement vector (rx1)
angle of attack, rad.
pitch angle, rad.
eigenvector ssingular value
damping ratiosubscriptsaachievable valuescassociated with controller ddesired valuesiindex over n modes passociated with pilotsscaled vector or matrixsssteady state
Advances in weapons and aircraft technology aresignificantly changing air combat. In the past, air combatengagements often resulted in tail chase fights measured inminutes, now they are measured in seconds with combatantsusing all-aspect weapons. New control effectors, such asthrust vectoring and retractable nose strakes, offer thecapability to expand the flight envelope with greater controlthan previously obtainable. Success in the fighter combatarena of the future will demand increased capability fromaircraft technology. Future fighters may have to operate inenvironments where having enhanced maneuverability andcontrollability, throughout a greatly expanded flightenvelope, including high angle of attack, is a requirement.Studies involving piloted and numerical air combatsimulations [refs.1-6] have shown that fighters with thiscapability are able to perform combat maneuvers in shorter time and in less space and thus achieve a tactical advantage.To achieve high levels of enhanced maneuverability andcontrollability or agility, as well as post-stall maneuveringcapability, requires successful development and integrationof several emerging technologies (ref.7). This study focuseson the problem of designing control laws for enhancedagility and supermaneuverability. This research has beenconducted in two phases. The first phase efforts focused oncharacterizing an aircraft's agility. Although many agility