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Murphy PC and Davidson JB, Aug-1991. Control Design for Future Agile Fighters, AIAA Paper No. 91-2882

Murphy PC and Davidson JB, Aug-1991. Control Design for Future Agile Fighters, AIAA Paper No. 91-2882

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Control Design for Future Agile Fighters
Patrick C. Murphy and John B. Davidson NASA Langley Research Center  Hampton, Virginia
AIAA Paper No. 91-2882Presented at the 1991 Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference New Orleans, LouisianaAugust 12-14, 1991
Patrick C. Murphy, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
 John B. Davidson, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
The CRAFT control design methodology is presented.CRAFT stands for the design objectives addressed, namely,Control power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying QualitiesTradeoffs. The approach combines eigenspace assignment,which allows for direct specification of eigenvalues andeigenvectors, and a graphical approach for representingcontrol design metrics that captures numerous design goalsin one composite illustration. The methodology makes useof control design metrics from four design objective areas,namely, control power, robustness, agility, and flyingqualities. An example of the CRAFT methodology as wellas associated design issues are presented. Control designmetrics are evaluated for systematic eigenvalue placementsover the complex plane. Metric surfaces are formed by plotting metric values for each of the frequency anddamping points specified. Graphical overlays of the metricsurfaces are then used to show the best design compromisefor a variety of design criteria. Since the sensitivity of themetrics to pole placement is clearly displayed, the designer can assess the cost of tradeoffs. This approach enhances thedesigner's ability to make informed design tradeoffs and toreach effective final designs.
Aplant matrixBcontrol distribution matrix for statesCstate distribution matrix for outputsDcontrol distribution matrix for outputsEuncertainty modelgfeedback gainGfeedback gain matrixGMgain metric based on sum of squares of gainsIidentity matrixKplant compensationKGloop transfer matrixLmatrix defining achievable subspace for 
Mstate distribution matrix for measurementsmnumber of controls Ncontrol distribution matrix for measurementsnnumber of states pnumber of outputsqpitch rate, rad/sec.rnumber of measurementssLaplace variable, s=j
Tscale matrixUcontrol vector (mx1) 
 Aerospace Engineer, Member AIAAVmatrix of eigenvectorsVotrim velocity, fps.wdesired eigenvector projection vectoWmatrix of wicolumnsXstate vector (nx1)Youtput vector (px1)Zmeasurement vector (rx1)
angle of attack, rad.
 pitch angle, rad.
eigenvector ssingular value
frequency, rad/sec
damping ratiosubscriptsaachievable valuescassociated with controlleddesired valuesiindex over n modes passociated with pilotsscaled vector or matrixsssteady state
Advances in weapons and aircraft technology aresignificantly changing air combat. In the past, air combatengagements often resulted in tail chase fights measured inminutes, now they are measured in seconds with combatantsusing all-aspect weapons. New control effectors, such asthrust vectoring and retractable nose strakes, offer thecapability to expand the flight envelope with greater controlthan previously obtainable. Success in the fighter combatarena of the future will demand increased capability fromaircraft technology. Future fighters may have to operate inenvironments where having enhanced maneuverability andcontrollability, throughout a greatly expanded flightenvelope, including high angle of attack, is a requirement.Studies involving piloted and numerical air combatsimulations [refs.1-6] have shown that fighters with thiscapability are able to perform combat maneuvers in shorter time and in less space and thus achieve a tactical advantage.To achieve high levels of enhanced maneuverability andcontrollability or agility, as well as post-stall maneuveringcapability, requires successful development and integrationof several emerging technologies (ref.7). This study focuseson the problem of designing control laws for enhancedagility and supermaneuverability. This research has beenconducted in two phases. The first phase efforts focused oncharacterizing an aircraft's agility. Although many agility
2metrics have been proposed [8-15], in general their primary purpose is for assessing combat capability and do notreadily lend themselves to be used in the control design process. The first phase efforts have been reported inreference 16 and have resulted in a candidate set of controldesign agility metrics that may prove useful to a flightcontrol law designer. In general, control design metrics arequantitative measures of specific system capabilities thattranslate desired operational characteristics into usefulengineering terms for the control designer. The second andcurrent phase of research is concentrating on thedevelopment of a design methodology for enhanced agilityutilizing the control design agility metrics. Designing for enhanced agility represents a serious challenge to the flightcontrols engineer, since the final design is always acompromise among many opposing tradeoffs. Besidesagility, other areas also require demanding design tradeoffsthat cannot be ignored in the design. Other key areas areflying qualities (characterizing pilot-in-the-loop demands),robustness (characterizing system tolerance to model error),and control power (characterizing control effector requirements or limits). Each of the four areas containmany design metrics; some represent hard designconstraints that must be met and many vary with flightcondition. This paper reports on the initial developmentwork that has been done to develop a flight control designmethodology and design criteria that allow a designer tomake informed tradeoffs among many different and oftencompeting requirements.
Design Approach
The design approach is referred to as CRAFT whichstands for the design objectives addressed, namely, Control power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying Qualities Tradeoffs.This approach provides the designer with a graphical tool tosimultaneously assess metrics from the four designobjective areas. The strength of this approach comes fromthe use of eigenspace assignment, which allows directspecification of eigenvalues and eigenvectors in the design,in combination with graphical overlays of metric surfaceswhich capture the design goals in a composite illustration.In this approach, design tradeoffs are made by interpretinggraphical overlays of metric surfaces that quantitativelycharacterize each design goal. Numerous metrics can beapplied simultaneously from each of the four designobjective areas or any area for which metrics can beexpressed in engineering terms. Graphical overlays of themetric surfaces show the best design compromise for all thedesign criteria and display the "cost" of changing from thatdesign point. This can greatly enhance the designer's abilityto make informed design tradeoffs.CRAFT is summarized in block diagram form in figure1. The design process begins by selecting a reasonablerange of frequency and damping for the closed-loopdynamics of interest. For example, if a longitudinal designwas desired, a range of frequency and damping for theshort-period mode would be selected with the phugoidmode specified to meet Level 1 flying qualities. Within thisrange, a grid of design points is chosen to systematicallycover the space. Some metrics may be known before theclosed-loop design, such as flying qualities specifications.However, the control power, robustness, and agility metricsrequire determination of the closed-loop system. Usingeigenspace assignment as the control design algorithm,feedback gains are computed to achieve the desired placement of the eigenvalues for the closed-loop system ateach design point. With eigenspace assignment, thedesigner also must define eigenvectors; specifying theeigenvectors is discussed in Design Issues. Once thedesired closed-loop systems are determined for a desired setof frequency (
and damping (
 pairs, each control designmetric can be evaluated and plotted producing a surfaceover the
space. Viewing the metric surface in a 2-Dcontour plot highlights the most desirable region to locatethe short period pole with respect to the particular metricstudied. The individual metric surfaces are an indication of the sensitivity of that metric to closed-loop pole location. Afinal overlay plot of desirable regions from each metricsurface can then be obtained. This is represented by the bottom-center block of figure 1. The intersection of desirable regions provide the best design compromise for allthe design criteria considered. Often desirable regions maynot overlap and some compromise will be required. For example, the designer may feel it necessary to give up Level1 flying qualities to achieve acceptable robustness margins.With graphical overlays of metric surfaces the designer isgiven a method to make design tradeoffs in light of therelative "cost" of the tradeoffs being made. The designer can assess the cost of tradeoffs, since the sensitivity of themetrics to pole placement is clearly displayed. Althoughmany metrics can be used, the designer has the opportunityto select or emphasize certain design metrics, such asagility, to achieve a desired final effect.
Control Design Metrics
Control design metrics are an integral part of CRAFT.Many control design metrics exist for aircraft and most fitinto one of the four design objective areas discussed above.In this paper a representative metric is proposed for eachdesign objective area. As experience is gained with themethodology, these metrics and other metrics will be tunedto provide greater sensitivity to design goals and designer needs.
Control Power Metrics
Metrics in the first design objective area characterizecontrol power or control power required. Control powemetrics provide measures of the forces and moments actingon an aircraft. The metric chosen for this paper is based ona Euclidean norm of gains and indirectly represents ameasure of control power required to achieve each desired pole location. In addition, the specification made for theother eigenvalues and eigenvectors is also reflected. Theassumption is made that larger gains generally correspondto a demand for greater control deflection or deflection rateand this, in turn, reflects a demand for greater control

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