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PHYSIO Notes - Endocrine

PHYSIO Notes - Endocrine

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Published by Matt McGlothlin
Overview of Endocrine System.
Overview of Endocrine System.

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Published by: Matt McGlothlin on May 15, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/15/2012

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CHAPTER8
ENDOCRINESYSTEM
EndocrineSystem194
Thyroid
195Underactivity
of
Thyroid
196Overactivity
of
Thyroid
197Parathyroids198Underactivity
of
Parathyroids199Overactivity
of
Parathyroids200AdrenalCortex201Underactivity
of
AdrenalCortex202Overaetivity
of
AdrenalCortex203AdrenalMedulla204Adrenaline205Development
of
Pituitary206AnteriorPituitary207Underactivity
of
AnteriorPituitary208Overactivity
of
PituitarySomatotrophCells209Overactivity
of
PituitaryCorticotrophCells210Panhypopituitarism
211
PosteriorPituitary212Oxytocin213Antidiuretic
Hormone
(AD
H)
214Underactivity
of
PosteriorPituitary215Aldosterone
and
AntidiureticHo
rm
onein
theMainte
nance
of
BloodVolume216Pancreas:Islets
of
Langerhans217
 
ENDOCRINESYSTEM
ENDOCRINESYSTEM
_HYPOTHALAMUS
-
I
_-PITUITARYANTERIOR
LOBEPOSTER
IOR
LOBE
-
:
.-
-;.u
-
\\-
The
DUeneSS
GLANDSproduce
hormones
('chemicalmessengers')
whi
ch
they
pass
intothe
blood
stream
for
general
circulation
to
excite
or
inhibit
the
activ
ityof
other
organs
or
tissues.Sexual
development
andReproductionMaintenance
of
stability
of
internal
environment
Resistance
to
stressTheglands
of
internalsecretionareconcernedwith
the
control
and
coordination
of
processes
wh
icharewidespreadin
the
body
-suchas
Metabolism
Fluidbalance
Growth
Allhaveaprofuse
blood
supply
to
receive
their
secretions_--THYROID
--
-
,,
-
--
-
--
4PARATHYROIDS
/2
TESTESin
Male
I
(2
OVARIESinFemale"[plusplacentain,pregnancy).)
,
I.
I
.'
,
,1
,I,
.
t'
,I
"
,
I
I
_2
ADRENALS
__
--
Cortex
--
...
---
Medu
lla
--
PANCREAS(Islets
of
Langerhans)
Some
other
systemsalsoproduce
hormoneswhich
arepassedintothe
blood
stream.STOMACH-
GASTRIN
VIP
(pp.75,86,96)
SMALL
GIP
(p.79)INTESTINE
SecretinCholecystokinin
(CCK)
DIGESTIVE
SYSTEM:-
KIDNEY
Erythropoietin
Renin1
,25
-DHCC
(p.198)
Hormone
moleculesmaybe:
pr
oteins,peptidesorcatecholamineswhichactonplasmam
embrane
rec
eptor
s,or
th
ey
ma
ybesteroids
or
iodinatedtyrosinederivatives(p.195)whichact
on
receptors
in
th
ecell
membrane
.
194
 
ENDOCRINESYSTEM
THYROID
Cubicalepitheliumextracts
from
thebloodstreamandconcentrates
IODIDE
(iodidetrapping)
!-
oxidised
by
peroxidase
IODINEMONOIODOTYROSINE
links
with
(MIT)TYROSINEDJlODOTYROSINE(DfT)
DIT+DITMIT+MIT


(6'"'"

('
,
0\
/
"",0,
'§.
TRJlODO-'
0
"'"
THYRONINE
V""
..
I'-:e
TETRAIODO-
(T
3)
t
(j
'"
THYRONINE_

(T
4)':
Storedincolloid
when
required
linkedwithprotein
a
protein-splitting
THYROGLOBULIN
enzyme
releases

FUNCTION:
,
Bloodvessels
REGULATIONOFSECRETION:
THYROIDGland
weighs
about
25
ginadult
STRUCTURE:
2LOBES(joined
by
ISTHMUS)composed
of
I
lieinfront
of
TRACHEA
T
3
and
T
4
arecarriedby
the
bloodtoallbodytissues.T
4
isusuallyconvertedin
the
cellcytoplasmtoT
3
whichbindstoreceptorsin
the
nuclei.This
complexbindsto
DNA
and
increasesspecificgeneswhichincrease
mRNA
and
ribosomal
RNAand
henceproteinsynthesis.
Oxygen
consumption,
heat
production
and
metabolism
areincreased.Normalthyroid
output
isrequiredfornormal
growth.
(Parafo
lli
c
ul
ar
cellssecrete...calcitonin-which
lowersblood
calcium
bysuppressingcalciummobilizationfrombone
and
byincreasing
calcium
excretion
in
the
urine.)
BODYTISSUESTHYROIDGLAND
IncreasedO
2
consumption
is
due
toanincreasein
the
size
and
number
of
mitochondria,in
Na
+,
K
+-
ATPase
activity
and
the
rates
of
glucoseandfattyacidoxidation
and
synthesis.
195
.,.---
....
,...

TRHfrom
/'"
HYPOTHALAMUS
,
:::..:
"
FALL
inblood
5:
I
RISE
inblood
I,'"
THYROID
"
f
THYROID
r
HORMONES
\
-.
HORMONES
I

I
depresses
pro":,otes

I
production
of
'';:;
I
production
of
I
a
I
7iRH
d
th
III
7iRH
d
I
Q:.,a:
anus
Cl
'
an
I
::.:
lI.i
0I
THYROID

thus
THYROID
-:


'0
I
STlMULA
TlNG
I
,/
HORMONE
(TSH
or
I
HORMONE
(TSH)
,
I
y,
THYROTROPHIN)
0.
I
from
ANTERIOR·
,E\PITUITARY

I
from
ANTERIOR
I


:
PITUITARY

;decreases
III
\
production"production
en
\
'
;;;
',and
release
andrelease
"...
of
(THVROIDiof
.........
--·-HORMONES----

/-1':.
£:
'
,.:.'
;.
8.
Z1
w,
.J

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