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PHYSIO Notes - Renal

PHYSIO Notes - Renal

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Published by Matt McGlothlin
Summary of Renal Physiology.
Summary of Renal Physiology.

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Published by: Matt McGlothlin on May 15, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/30/2014

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CHAPTER
7
EXCRETORY
SYSTEM
Excretory
System
Kidney
BloodVessels
Kidney
-
StructureJuxtaglomerularApparatus
Urine
FormationForces
Involved
in
Filtration
Water
Reabsorption
-Proximal
TubuleWater
Reabsorption
-
Distaland
Collecting
Tubules
Function
of
the
Loop
of
Henle
Role
of
Urea
inthe
Counter-Current
MechanismFunction
of
the
VasaRecta
Maintenance
of
Acid-BaseBalance
Sodium
ReabsorptionDefence
of
Body
Fluid
Volume
Renal
Regulation
of
Potassium
ExcretionDefence
of
Body
Fluid
Tonacity
Plasma
Clearance
The
'Clearance'
of
Inulin
inthe
NephronUrea
'Clearance'
PAH
'Clearance'
Urinary
Bladder
and
Ureters
Storage
andExpulsion
of
UrineUrine
166167168169170
171
172
173,
174
175,
176
177
178
179-181
182183184185186187188189190
191
192
 
EXCRETORYSYS
TEM
EXCRETORY
SYSTEM
TheRENALARTERY
dividesinto
/INTERLOBARARTERIES
",'-'
+
_
I
/.:
divideinto
'
ARCUAT.
..
:A




%
'"
.-._-
c
_______
.....
.
'<,
...
_.
;::;-------
-
-
.

.
----
:
give
rise
to
-z:
....
y
..
--...-
/
::
.STRAIGHT.-.
....
-
;:
...
:....
.-
'-:--'
-=-=
=
f
.:
.
:-ARTERIES
-
._"
-:-..:.
I:
'":...
-
•.
-
.........
-
--------
..
-.
....
-
from
which
arise-
..
'-,:
-
--
'-AFFERENT-
__
-
'-.;:
....:..::--



.
--.....
-
----


......
....
..
---
---.-:
\
\
Each
AfferentArteriole
.

dividesinto
a
tuftof
i
I
capillaries
which
stay
1
,
close
together
toform
I
theGLOMERULUS(or
glomerular
capillaries).
Allthe
glomeruli
lie
within
thecortex
of
the
kidney.Thecapillaries
of
each
glomerulus
rejoin
to
form
anefferentarteriole.

arteriesarealsocalledINTERLOBULAR
arteries
I
..
_.:
--
-,.
.
BLADDER--
---
---
--
",'"
storage
and
..
/
....
expulsion
of
....
URINE
",,,,
,,,,,,
,
'"
URETHRAKIDNEYS---...."
formation
of
URINE
....
'J
1,...,...;'.
\,...../
--
---
-
--
.:':.
_-------
URETERS
The
resp
iratory
sys
te
m,
the
skin
andthe
kidneys
are
thechief
excretoryorgans
of
thebody
.
Function
of
the
Kidneys
The
kidneys
adju
st
loss
of
waterand
electrolytes
from
thebody
tokeep
body
fluids
constant
in
amount
and
composition.
They
excretewaste
products
of
metabolism,
foreignchemicals
such
as
drugs
and
foodadditives,secretethe
hormones
renin
anderythropoietinand
they
activate
vitamin
D.
They
are
involvedin
blood
pressure
regulationsince,in
controlling
sodium
balance,theyalsocontroltotal
bodywaterand
extracellular
volume
.
The
renin-angiotensinsystem
issimilarlyinvolved.
They
produce
such
vasoactive
substances
as
prostaglandins
whichcan
be
constrictoror
dilator,
andbradykinin
thevasodilator
peptide.
To
understandthe
wayinwhich
the
kidneycarries
out
thesefunctions,
it
isessentialto
understand
first
the
way
in
which
it
is
supplied
with
blood.
About
25%
of
the
leftventricle
's
outputof
blood
in
eachcardiaccycleis
distributed
to
the
kidneysforfiltration.
166
 
EXC
RETOR
YSY
STEM
KIDNEY
BLOODVESSELS
The
rout
etaken
bythe
blood
after
itpasses
through
the
efferentarterioles
depends
on
whetherthe
efferentarteriolesarefromajuxta-medullary(nextto
the
medulla)glomerulus
or
an
out
er
corticalgl
omerulus.
-
--
,ARCUATE,
ARTERY
--
-----------
CORTICO
-MEDULLARYJUNCTIONARCUATE
VEIN
VASA
RECTA-
formedbyefferentarteriole
of
juxta-
medullaryglomerulus
branching
toform
capillaries.These
form
longloops
which
run
downinto
themedullaandsurroundcollectingducts,thenrunback
up
and
jo
inarcuatevein.
"
,,/
OUTER
CORTICALGLOMERULAR
;'
CAPILLARIES,;
EFFERENT
ARTERIOLE
-
;;
givesrise
to
asecondnetwork
of
capillaries
which
areconfined
to
thecortex,hence
surroundproximal
anddistalconvolutedtubulesandcorticalpart
of
collecting
tubu
les,thenjoininterlobarvein
which
joinsthearcuatevein.
AFFERENTARTERIOLES
\\
\
\
\
,
\
,
,
STRAIGHT
.........
ARTERYEFFERENT
/"
ARTERIOLE
JUXTA-MEDULLARYGLOMERULUS
-
CORTEX
--
---
--
-
Th
eefferent
art
eriolesare
narrow
er
than
th
e
affer
ent
whichcausesahi
gh
er
pre
s
sur
einthegl
omerular
capillaries
than
incapillariesin
otherpart
sof
th
ebody.
Ar
cuate
veinsj
oin
tof
orm
interl
obar
veinswhi
chthen
jointoformr
en
alvein.
167

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