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Biology Chapter 13

Biology Chapter 13

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Published by Jon Williams
Complete Notes from Biology 1 (2007)
Complete Notes from Biology 1 (2007)

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Published by: Jon Williams on Jun 03, 2007
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/06/2013

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“DNA Structure and Function”____
Biology 13
th
Chapter
 
A. DNA StructureDNA is a nucleic acid composed of nucleotide monomersDNA nucleotide consists of:
 
 
one phosphate group
 
one deoxyribose sugar
 
one nitrogenous base(DNA is a double-stranded helix)Pyrimidines (T & C) form hydrogen bonds with purines (A & G)
 
Thymine pairs with Adenine, forming 2 hydrogen bonds
 
Cytosine pairs with Guanine, forming 3 hydrogen bondsDNA Strands are anti parallel (numbering of strands is based on position of deoxyribosesugars)DNA is highly condensed
 
DNA is tightly wrapped around proteins and folded
 
DNA must unwind for replication to occur
B. DNA ReplicationProcess by which DNA is duplicated
 
occurs during the S phase of Interphase
 
is semi-conservative (Meselon and Stahl)
 
C. COMPARISON OF DNA AND RNA
RNA is a more versitle molecule than DNA. It is able to store and code forinformation or act as a catalyst. RNA however is less stable than DNA --subject to degredation or mutation.
 
Six major differences are:
 1.
 
The sugar in the RNA molecule is ribose. DNA's sugar is deoxyribose.
 2.
 
RNA is usually a single stranded molecule while DNA is nearly alwaysdouble stranded.
 3.
 
DNA's rigid double helix structure allows for only one function(information storage) whereas RNA's greater molecular diversity resultsin a wider range of functions
 4.
 
RNA uses the nucleotide uracil instead of thymine
 5.
 
DNA is often 10
3
to 10
6
times larger than RNA
 6.
 
RNA is much less stable than DNA. As a single stranded molecule it hasno way of reparing itself.
 
 
 D. TranscriptionmRNA is made from DNA
 
occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells
BE SURE TO KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRANSCRIPTION ANDTRANSLATION >>> WILL BE ON THE TEST
There are 3 major types of RNA that can be TRANSCRIBED
 
mRNA (messenger RNA) – used to make proteins
 
rRNA (ribosomal RNA) – used to make ribosomes
 
tRNA (transfer RNA) –
transports specific amino acids during protein synthesis (translation)
tRNA
Eukaryotic mRNA must be processed before it exits nucleus and enters cytoplasm
 
nucleotide cap is added
 
“poly A tail” is added
 
introns are removedE. TranslationProtein is made from mRNA
 
occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells

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