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Planning for Conservation of Heritage Areas in Old Goa: Issues and Strategies

Planning for Conservation of Heritage Areas in Old Goa: Issues and Strategies

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Published by idesajith
Old Goa known is for its heritage and having rich
culture, world famous monuments viz. churches and temples,
inherited natural scenic beauty and attractive beaches. It was
formally a Portuguese colony and now it is one of the important
tourist destinations in India. The Old Goa has a number of
heritage sites and monuments. The UNESCO has declared
Old-Goa as World Heritage Site in 1986. The heritage areas
have come under tremendous threat due to non comprehensive
approach by the agencies involved in conserving including
people at large. The paper deal with heritage monuments and
their significance assessment which were evaluated by using
historical, architectural, environmental and cultural criteria,
conservation issues and measures for planning and
development of heritage areas in Old Goa.
Old Goa known is for its heritage and having rich
culture, world famous monuments viz. churches and temples,
inherited natural scenic beauty and attractive beaches. It was
formally a Portuguese colony and now it is one of the important
tourist destinations in India. The Old Goa has a number of
heritage sites and monuments. The UNESCO has declared
Old-Goa as World Heritage Site in 1986. The heritage areas
have come under tremendous threat due to non comprehensive
approach by the agencies involved in conserving including
people at large. The paper deal with heritage monuments and
their significance assessment which were evaluated by using
historical, architectural, environmental and cultural criteria,
conservation issues and measures for planning and
development of heritage areas in Old Goa.

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Poster Paper Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Civil Engineering 2011
© 2011 ACEEDOI: 02.ACE.2011.02.
Planning for Conservation of Heritage Areas in OldGoa: Issues and Strategies
Shaikh Ali Ahmed
1
and Dr. B. Shankar
2
1
Research Scholar and Planning Assistant, North Goa Planning andDevelopment Authority, Panaji, E-mail: shaikhali.ahmed@yahoo.com
2
Associate Professor, Institute of Development Studies, University of Mysore, MysoreE-mail: doddi43@gmail.com (Corresponding author)29
 Abstract:
Old Goa known is for its heritage and having richculture, world famous monuments viz. churches and temples,inherited natural scenic beauty and attractive beaches. It wasformally a Portuguese colony and now it is one of the importanttourist destinations in India. The Old Goa has a number of heritage sites and monuments. The UNESCO has declaredOld-Goa as World Heritage Site in 1986. The heritage areashave come under tremendous threat due to non comprehensiveapproach by the agencies involved in conserving includingpeople at large. The paper deal with heritage monuments andtheir significance assessment which were evaluated by usinghistorical, architectural, environmental and cultural criteria,conservation issues and measures for planning anddevelopment of heritage areas in Old Goa.
 Index of Terms
: Heritage Areas, Significance Assessment,Conservation, Strategies.
I.I
NTRODUCTION
The Old-Goa has as many as fifty monuments and sites.It encompasses individual heritage buildings of finearchitectural quality including archaeological remains, ruins,buildings and monuments. The rich built heritage componentof Old-Goa is a part of cultural heritage of the people whichsymbolizes the interactions of the cultures and in particularthat has a number of churches and convents. Most of thesechurches are constructed way back in the 16th century andare the best examples of Manueline and Gothic architecture.These churches have very intricate detailing andornamentation reflecting the past and playing an importantrole in shaping the community to know about the ancientculture, way of life, architecture, level of development, buildingtechniques, and use of material, art and other aspects of thesociety of a particular period.Therefore, it becomes necessaryto appraise the repository of heritage structures, which areto be carefully preserved, conserved and managed. Sevenout of fifty monuments are located in the central area and theareas around these monuments have come under tremendousthreat due to increase in core functional activities, decay,congestion and new incongruent developments. Therefore,the heritage needs to be addressed sympathetically foreffective conservation of heritage areas. The paper deals withthe heritage areas, significance assessment of heritagemonuments, issues of heritage areas and conservationmeasures proposed for conserving the heritage areas in OldGoa in harmonized manner.II.B
ACKGROUND
O
F
G
OA
Old Goa was the capital of Portuguese and Port city in16
th
century. It was a principal city of Portuguese EasternEmpire internationally renowned for its rich heritage, culture,famous monuments viz. churches, convents, temples andbeaches; visited by hundreds of thousands of foreign anddomestic tourists each year; and one of the most popularholiday destinations; and is also known as the Rome of theEast. It has a number of churches and convent; most of thesechurches date back to the 16th century and are best examplesof Manueline and Gothic architecture having very intricatedetailing and ornamentation. Most of the important churchesare located in Old Goa, on the East of Panaji, about a distanceof 10 kms.The area around Basilica of Bom Jesus has been declaredas a preservation area and admeasures approximately 801 ha,and it includes about fifty sites and buildings. The churcheshave been declared as World Heritage Monuments byUNESCO in 1986. A native of Goa is called a Goan in English,‘Goenkar’ in Konkani, ‘Goês’ (male) or ‘Goesa’ (female) inPortuguese, and a ‘Govekar’ in Marathi.Old Goa, the burial place of St. Francis Xavier, known forits unique cultural atmosphere, which is the result of theinfluences absorbed after 450 years long Portuguese rule.The influence has left a deep impact on the local traditions inall spheres and has formed a distinct cultural identity of thepeople of Goa. St. Francis Xavier had come to Goa to blessthis land and its people. His mortal remains and spirit stillresided at the imposing Basilica of Bom Jesus at Old Goa. St.Francis Xavier was an instrument to carry with him the gospelof Jesus but more than that he also carried a way of life of people, their ethos and a rich culture in which perhaps dance,music, arts, crafts, architecture, festivals, fun and frolic wereall entwined with each other.Goa, therefore, has become “A
 
symbol of religious co-existence, tolerance, and a unique example of cross fertilizationof cultures in our vast, multi-racial, multi-lingual, multi-dimensional complex society”. It has developed a strongidentity of its own and that is why Goa was chosen, thoughit was a difficult choice with so many identifiable roots thatexists in an ancient country like India. Goa is known for
“nature’s own beautiful gift 
” that combines all the threeaspects of heritage namely natural heritage, built heritageand cultural heritage.51
 
Poster Paper 
© 2011 ACEEDOI: 02.ACE.2011.02.
Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Civil Engineering 2011
29III. H
ERITAGE
A
REAS
O
F
O
LD
-G
OA
Goa’s prime attraction for tourists is 105 kms. Long palmfringed coast line. All beaches unbroken for several kilometershave fine stretches of sand called silver sand, natural beautyof hills, and of course the rich built heritage of the land. Old-Goa is declared as world Heritage site by UNESCO. The areaaround the heritage monuments admeasures approximately801.00 hectares and includes about fifty sites and buildings.The churches located in Old-Goa, have already been declaredas World Heritage Monuments by UNESCO in 1986.IV. T
HE
M
ONUMENTS
I
N
O
LD
-G
OA
 A. T 
 HE 
B
 ASILICA
 
OF 
B
OM 
 ESUS
:
The construction of 
 Basilica of Bom Jesus
was initiatedin 1594 at the cost of the bequest of the Dom JerominoMascarenhas; the church was consecrated in the year 1605by Frey Dom Aleixo de Menezes. The professed house wascompleted in 1585, a part was accidentally burnt down in1663 and the same was rebuilt in 1783. The mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier who died on sea voyage to China on Dec.2,1552. The casket of mortal remains of the Saint is in thischurch. Built with laterite, its exterior excluding the façade iswithout plaster, tiled roof and cruciform on plan. It haselements of five schools of Architecture, Roman, Ironic, andDoric, Corinthian, and Composite and also built inRenaissance and baroque style.
Fig 2. Basilica of Bom Jesus Fig 3. Casket of mortal of St.FrancisXavier 
 B. C 
ONVENT 
 
 AND
 HURCH 
 
OF 
S
. F 
 RANCIS
A
SSISI 
The origin of 
Church of St. Francis Assisi and 
conventattached to it can be traced to the humble beginnings madeby eight Franciscan Friars who arrived in 1517; secured fromthe Governor few houses that belonged to a deceasedThanadar and he put persistent efforts and constructed asmall chapel with three Altars and a Choir. The churchconsecrated to the Holy Ghost was built in 1521 which waslater pulled down. The church was re-built on the same spotin 1661 by retaining only the existence of the earlier church.It was built with laterite blocks and plastered with lime; theexteriors of the church were Tuscan order, while the mainentrance was in Manueline style. The main Altar has Baroquewith Corinthian features.
C. R
 EMAINS
 
OF 
S
. A
UGUSTINE 
OWER
 
 AND
 HURCH 
The St. Augustine Tower and Church was
 
built on holyhill, in 1602 by the Augustinian Friars who arrived in Goa in1587 with the religious separation in 1835.Tower was builtwith Red laterite blocked structure, and finished with limeplaster, mixture of Manueline and Hindu Art.TheAugustinians deserted the church and convent. The buildingcollapsed on 8
th
September, 1842. The façade and half towerfell in 1931 and 1938.
Fig 6. Remains of St. Augustine Tower and Church
D.
 HE 
 HURCH 
 
 AND
ONVENT 
 
OF 
S
. C 
 AJETAN 
The Church and Convent of St. Cajetan
 
was built during1656 – 700 after the establishment of the order of theatineswhen the Pop Urban VIII was sent members and D. PedroAvitabilis to spread the gospel in the Kingdom of Golcondabut, they could not enter the Golconda and finally resided inGoa and built the magnificent church. It has an Italianrenaissance with baroque external Corinthian style built withlaterite blocks and lime plastered. An Italian monk of thetheatines order built with diminutive dome church was builton the lines of the Roman Basilica.V. S
IGNIFICANCE
 
ASSESSMENT
The monuments of high significant value havinghistorical, architectural, environmental and cultural importancehave been assessed by using evaluation criteria. The a)
historical significance
: trends and events, b)
architecturalsignificance
: architectural style and architectural design c)
environmental
: compatibility with heritage environs and landmark status and d)
cultural
: living style, customs, traditionsand faith and different grading were done by giving scores.The top five monuments were identified. Basilica of Bom Jesusstands first followed by Se Cathedral, Church of St. Cajetan,St. Francis Assisi and Lady of Monte (see Appendix I).VI. I
NSTITUTIONAL
M
ANAGEMENT
I
N
G
OA
The UNESCO has declared seven monuments as worldheritage monuments and sites namely: (a) Chapel of St.Catherine, (b) Church of St. Francis of Assisi, (c) Church of Our Lady of the Rosary, (d) Basilica of Bom Jesus (e) St.Cathedral, (f) Church of St. Cajetan and (g) Church andConvent of St. Augustine in the year 1986.The other institutions those are responsible in identifyingand managing the historical and architectural heritagestructures in Old Goa namely Archaeological Survey of Indiaand State Archaeology. The local authority has also identifiedfew heritage buildings for management and conservation.There are many more structures having significant valueneeds identification.52
 
Poster Paper Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Civil Engineering 2011
© 2011 ACEEDOI: 02.ACE.2011.02.29VII. PLANNING ISSUES OF HERITAGE AREASFour of the top five ranked Monuments are in the corearea which has a high level of historical and culturalsignificance, therefore it requires a great deal in managingthe surrounding area from the heritage significance andplanning point of view. The area around these monumentshas been clearly marked as preservation area in the RegionalPlan of Goa 2021, the area needs to be readdressed.The ASIdoesn’t have control over the areas beyond 300 metres. Thearea beyond 300 metres has come under the threat of newdevelopments. Regulating the heritage buildings and landdevelopment in environment require altogether a differentapproach and the total area to be treated as composite areafor heritage conservation. The problems encountered in theheritage area are as follows:i) There is a great pressure around the heritage building forthe development of high rise buildings but, the buildings of sizeable height will cause invisibility to the monuments.ii) Haphazard developments that are coming up in vicinity oheritage areas and precincts are greatly affecting theaesthetics and dis-harmony with the existing monuments.iii) The area beyond 300metres has no control over the newdevelopment that has caused greater threats to themonuments and its surrounding environs.iv) There are many illegal structures that have come up withina distance of 500 metres near the chapel of St. Francis Xavierand Se Cathedral.v) Improper management of the heritage monuments includingrepairs and areas showing a signs of decay which needs tobe arrested.vi) Improper management of traffic leading to congestionand parking problems in the area near the church of St. FrancsAssissi and Basilica of Bom Jesus.vii) Environmental problems such as; disposal of solid waste,improper location of site for disposal of solid waste withinthe trail area as per the Regional Plan 2021 calls for relocationof site.viii) The informal sector activities on pavements andfootpaths have caused congestion for the pedestrians.ix) Poor public participation due to lack of education andawareness about the heritage areas.x) The heritage areas lacks in proper management of infrastructure at the places national and international touristsinterest.xi) Environmental degradation has caused due to old anddilapidated existing structures within 300 metres from theprotected monument, needs rehabilitation.xii) Inadequate development control for the area includingthe sub-division regulations, facades and landscapes.VIII. HERITAGE STRATEGIESThe buildings of historical and architectural importanceneed to be identified, conserved and protected for the futuregenerations to achieve sustainable development. Therefore,the heritage areas including monuments’ influence needs tobe protected through proper conservative measures in aholistic approach.The proposed strategies to include;i) Heritage conservation measures are to be initiated for theentire trial areas without restricting the area to 801 hectaresas per Goa Regional Plan 2021. The guidelines for developmentof heritage conservation need to be framed for regulating theentire trail area.ii) Diverse skylines at different distances from theMonuments are to be maintained for the planned developmentof the area up to a distance of 1000 meters from each of themonuments.iii) Re-routing of vehicles in the core area for the appropriatemanagement of traffic flow and pedestrian movement is to beinitiated. A separate organized pay-parking provision in theadjoining properties to church of St. Francis Assissi is to bemade by acquiring 20,000 sq.mts initially for about 100 carparking spaces and further expandable up to 300 car parkingspaces.iv) Establishment of harmony in facades of existingmonuments to be made obligatory so that the significance of the area is protected.v) Maintaining streetscape and developing landscapes inthe central area to enhance the image of the city.vi) Inclusion of transfer of development rights (TDR) in thedevelopment control for the heritage areas for those ownerswho lose their floor area (FAR) in building their properties inconservation zones.vii) Provision of intra-non polluting electric vehicle servicesto the age old people and children to visit all the monumentsof the area.viii) Repairs and renovation in the area to be discouraged butto be carried out with strict supervision from the conservationspecialists.ix) New site for disposal of solid waste outside the trail area isto be identified and properly managed.x) The informal sector presently occupying the footpath is tobe accommodated in the market area which is 100 metres awayfrom the heritage areas.CONCLUSIONSThe heritage areas and monuments in Old-Goa are of highvery significant value. These areas are to be properlymanaged, maintained and planned so that it can be passedon to the future generations without losing its character. If these issues continue to exist in these sensitive areas thenthe area will naturally grow unplanned leading to mis-management of the area. The policies on built cultural heritageprotection needs designation of heritage conservation forentire trail areas, framed within the traditional Indian cultureand cross cultures. For an effective integration or assimilationof the experience in the local context, education of the publicand awareness of heritage monuments and areas should beput on top of the agenda. Old-Goa has its own cultural andbuilt Heritage and calls for public participation to protect theheritage areas losing from its identity.53

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