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EMSC5103 Assignment - Sustainable Construction

EMSC5103 Assignment - Sustainable Construction

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Published by Izam Muhammad
NAME: MOHD. NORIZAM BIN MD. SALLEH

Author will not be resposible shall any of the information given in this document is wrong.

NAME: MOHD. NORIZAM BIN MD. SALLEH

Author will not be resposible shall any of the information given in this document is wrong.

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Published by: Izam Muhammad on May 15, 2012
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SEPTEMBER SEMSTER 2011LECTURER;
 
Prof. Sr. Dato’ Dr. Kamarudin Mohd Nor STUDENT;
NAME: MOHD. NORIZAM BIN MD. SALLEH MATRIC NO.: CGS 00534317 I/C NO: 670703-01-6045 COURSE: SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION 
ASSIGNMENT SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION (EMSC513) 
 
 
Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. SallehMatriculation No.: CGS 00534317Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)
 
Semester January 2012ii
Table of Contents
Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................................... ii
 
Question 1 ..................................................................................................................................................... 1
 
Answer 1 ........................................................................................................................................................ 1
 
1.1
 
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1
 
1.2
 
Definition for Environmentalism and Sustainable Development ......................................................... 2
 
1.3 Triple Bottom Line ................................................................................................................................ 5
 
1.3.1 Environmental ................................................................................................................................... 7
 
1.3.2 Economics ........................................................................................................................................ 8
 
1.3.3 Social ................................................................................................................................................ 9
 
1.4 Sustainable Symbioses...................................................................................................................... 11
 
Question 2 ................................................................................................................................................... 14
 
Answer 2 ...................................................................................................................................................... 14
 
2.1 Sustainable Construction ................................................................................................................... 14
 
2.2 Sustainable Construction, Seven (7) Principles ................................................................................ 16
 
2.2.1 Reduce resource consumption (reduce/conserve); ........................................................................ 16
 
2.2.2 Reuse resources (reuse); ............................................................................................................... 21
 
2.2.3 Use recyclable resources (renew/recycle); ..................................................................................... 23
 
2.2.4 Protect nature (nature); ................................................................................................................... 25
 
2.2.4.1 Structurally Sound ................................................................................................................... 27
 
2.2.4.2 Green with Envy ...................................................................................................................... 28
 
2.2.4.3 Challenges .............................................................................................................................. 29
 
2.2.4.4 A Pleasant Addition ................................................................................................................. 29
 
2.2.5 Eliminate toxics (non-toxics environment); ..................................................................................... 30
 
2.2.6 Apply life-cycle costing (economics); .............................................................................................. 31
 
2.2.7 Focus on quality (quality) ................................................................................................................ 34
 
Question 3 ................................................................................................................................................... 35
 
Answer 3 ...................................................................................................................................................... 35
 
3.1 The functions of Green Building Rating Systems or GBRSs ............................................................. 35
 
3.2 Malaysia’s Green Building Index (GBI) .............................................................................................. 37
 
3.2.1 Energy Efficiency (EE) .................................................................................................................... 38
 
3.2.2 Indoor Environment Quality (EQ) .................................................................................................... 39
 
3.2.3 Sustainable Site Planning & Management (SM) ............................................................................ 40
 
3.2.4 Materials & Resources (MR) ........................................................................................................... 40
 
3.2.5 Water Efficiency (WE) ..................................................................................................................... 40
 
3.2.6 Innovation (IN) ................................................................................................................................ 41
 
3.3 The Different of BCA Green Mark and Green Building Index (Malaysia) .............................................. 42
 
Question 4 ................................................................................................................................................... 47
 
Answer 4 ...................................................................................................................................................... 47
 
4.1 Material Specification Choice [in the life cycle approach] as Opined by Halliday. ............................ 47
 
4.1.1 Resource base ................................................................................................................................ 48
 
4.1.2 Embodied pollution. ........................................................................................................................ 50
 
4.1.2.1 Extraction ................................................................................................................................ 51
 
4.1.2.2 Processing and production...................................................................................................... 53
 
4.1.2.3 Waste ...................................................................................................................................... 54
 
4.1.2.4 Recycling ................................................................................................................................. 55
 
4.1.2.5 Transportation ......................................................................................................................... 55
 
4.1.2.6 Distribution .............................................................................................................................. 55
 
4.1.2.7 Packaging ................................................................................................................................ 55
 
4.1.3 Impact in use aims .......................................................................................................................... 56
 
4.1.3.1 Detailing .................................................................................................................................. 56
 
4.1.3.2 Toxicity .................................................................................................................................... 56
 
4.1.3.3 Passive environmental control ................................................................................................ 57
 
4.1.3.4 Local issues............................................................................................................................. 58
 
4.1.4 In final destination ........................................................................................................................... 58
 
4.1.4.1 Innovation ................................................................................................................................ 59
 
4.1.4.2 Reduce .................................................................................................................................... 61
 
Name: Mohd. Norizam Bin Md. SallehMatriculation No.: CGS 00534317Assignment – EMSC5103 (Sustainable Construction)
 
Semester January 2012iii
Table of Contents (continued)
 4.1.4.3 Repair ...................................................................................................................................... 61
 
4.1.4.4 Reuse ...................................................................................................................................... 62
 
4.1.4.5 Recycle .................................................................................................................................... 63
 
4.1.4.6 Energy Recovery ..................................................................................................................... 64
 
4.2 Material Selection using Life-Cycle Assessment .................................................................................. 65
 
4.2.1 Cradle-to-gate: ................................................................................................................................ 66
 
4.2.2 Cradle-to-grave: .............................................................................................................................. 66
 
4.2.3 Cradle-to-cradle (open loop production): ........................................................................................ 68
 
Question 5 ................................................................................................................................................... 70
 
Answer 5 ...................................................................................................................................................... 70
 
5.1 Economic Benefits of Green Buildings. ................................................................................................. 70
 
5.1.1 Reduced operating costs ................................................................................................................ 70
 
5.1.2 Reduced waste ............................................................................................................................... 71
 
5.1.3 Reduce liability ................................................................................................................................ 71
 
5.1.4 Enhanced productivity and learning................................................................................................ 72
 
5.1.5 Social cost and the environment ..................................................................................................... 73
 
5.2 The Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 75
 
5.2.1 Definition of Whole-life-cost ............................................................................................................ 75
 
5.2.2 Definition of Life-cycle-assessment ................................................................................................ 76
 
5.2.3 The Diffrent Between Whole-life-cost and Life-cycle-assessment ................................................. 78
 
5.3 Whole Life Cost (WLC) .......................................................................................................................... 79
 
5.3.1 An Example of Whole-life-cost ........................................................................................................ 80
 
5.3.2 The Need for Whole-life-cost (WLC) ............................................................................................... 80
 
5.3.3 SUDS Whole-life-costs ................................................................................................................... 81
 
5.3.4 Discounting future costs.................................................................................................................. 81
 
5.3.5 Data required for a Whole-life-cost Approach ................................................................................ 82
 
5.3.5.1 Design Life .............................................................................................................................. 82
 
5.3.5.2 Capital Costs ........................................................................................................................... 82
 
5.3.5.3 Operation & Maintenance Costs ............................................................................................. 82
 
5.3.5.4 Risk Costs ............................................................................................................................... 83
 
5.3.5.5 Risk Costs ............................................................................................................................... 83
 
5.3.5.6 Environmental Costs ............................................................................................................... 84
 
5.3.5.7 Disposal Costs ........................................................................................................................ 84
 
5.3.5.8 Residual Costs ........................................................................................................................ 84
 
5.3.5.9 Discount Rate and Discount Period ........................................................................................ 84
 
5.3.6 Literature Review of Costs for SUDS ............................................................................................. 85
 
5.3.7 SUDS Whole life costing methodology ........................................................................................... 86
 
5.4 Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) ................................................................................................................ 87
 
5.4.1 Sample of Life Cycle Assessment .................................................................................................. 90
 
5.4.1.1 Comparing the Data ................................................................................................................ 91
 
5.4.1.2 Measuring Carbon ................................................................................................................... 92
 
5.4.1.3 Common Approaches ............................................................................................................. 92
 
5.4.1.4 Carbon Footprint Composition ................................................................................................ 94
 
5.4.1.5 Comparing Carbon Footprints of Packaging Materials ........................................................... 95
 
5.4.1.6 Refillable Glass Bottles ........................................................................................................... 95
 
5.4.2 LCA - Conclusion ............................................................................................................................ 96
 
References .................................................................................................................................................. 97
 
Attachment I – Malaysia GBI Assessment Criteria: Industrial New Construction (INC)
 
Attachment II – BCA Green Mark for Non-Residential Buildings Version NRB/4.0
 
Attachment III – Sustainable Construction of Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Philip Merrill EnvironmentalCenter, Annapolis, Maryland (Moskow Keith, 2008)
 

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