Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
×
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Understanding Breast Ironing

Understanding Breast Ironing

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,910|Likes:
Breast “ironing” or “flattening” is a practice that impacts 1:4 Cameroonian girls and women, in which a heated object such as a grinding stone or pestle is used to massage or press a girl’s breasts to retard or reverse breast development. The practice seeks to prologue a girl’s childlike appearance, thereby protecting her from unwanted sexual attention and the possibility of early/unwanted pregnancy. This report presents the findings of a qualitative field study in Bafut, Cameroon, and contributes to the knowledge and scholarly research on what is a largely understudied practice. Recommendations to end the practice include conducting additional research to better understand prevalence, trends, and health outcomes; supporting advocacy campaigns to raise awareness and increase dialogue about the practice; and strengthening institutional protection of females in Cameroon through sex education, access to family planning, and access to legal protection. This report should be of interest to those working on women’s and children’s rights, as well as human rights and public health.
Breast “ironing” or “flattening” is a practice that impacts 1:4 Cameroonian girls and women, in which a heated object such as a grinding stone or pestle is used to massage or press a girl’s breasts to retard or reverse breast development. The practice seeks to prologue a girl’s childlike appearance, thereby protecting her from unwanted sexual attention and the possibility of early/unwanted pregnancy. This report presents the findings of a qualitative field study in Bafut, Cameroon, and contributes to the knowledge and scholarly research on what is a largely understudied practice. Recommendations to end the practice include conducting additional research to better understand prevalence, trends, and health outcomes; supporting advocacy campaigns to raise awareness and increase dialogue about the practice; and strengthening institutional protection of females in Cameroon through sex education, access to family planning, and access to legal protection. This report should be of interest to those working on women’s and children’s rights, as well as human rights and public health.

More info:

Published by: Feinstein International Center on May 15, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See More
See less

05/15/2012

pdf

text

original

 
UnderstandingBreastIroningRebeccaTapscott
 
1
 
UNDERSTANDING BREAST “IRONING”:
 
A STUDY OF THE METHODS, MOTIVATIONS, AND OUTCOMES OFBREAST FLATTENING PRACTICES IN CAMEROON
ByRebeccaTapscottMay14,2012FeinsteinInternationalCenter
 
UnderstandingBreastIroningRebeccaTapscott
 
2
 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
 This research was made possible by a generous grant from the Feinstein International Center. Iwould also like to acknowledge my appreciation for the support and contributions of thefollowing people and institutions.Plan Cameroon, particularly Judith Nkie, Nathalia Ngende, Georges Niatchak, and other Planstaff for their help designing research questions and translating documents. For my research inYaoundé, I would like to thank Dr. Flavien Ndonko of GIZ whose research and insightsinformed the bulk of my study, as well as Germain Ngo’o. I would also like to thank the womenof RENATA, notably the Executive Secretary Georgette Taku and Auntie Carlton Wright, who provided background information on the practice of breast flattening, and helped connect mewith both experts and victims. In Bafut, the Bafut Council and the Secretary General Mr. NgwaSamuel Cheneh supported my research and oversaw the coordination of many key interviews.Adeline Bih provided assistance with translation and companionship in the field. Plan’s YouthEmpowerment through Technology Arts and Media program in Bamessing translated keydocuments. I would also like to thank Anna Nebane and her family, who sponsored my stay inBafut. Marc Nene assisted with final translation on this report. At the Feinstein InternationalCenter, I thank Peter Walker for his feedback, and especially Dyan Mazurana for her editorialguidance and assistance in producing the final version of this report. I would also like to thank the many other local contacts and friends who offered their knowledge and insights, and madethis research possible.Breast “ironing” or “flattening” is a largely understudied practice. I deeply value any commentsor feedback from readers. These should be sent to <rebecca.tapscott@tufts.edu>
 
UnderstandingBreastIroningRebeccaTapscott
 
3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY iRESUME vI. INTRODUCTION 1
A. Defining Breast Flattening 1
B. Methodology 3II. STUDY FINDINGS 5A. Origins of the Practice 5B.
Methods to Carry Out Breast Flattening 6
 C. Practicing Groups and Individuals 9D.
Areas for Additional Research 11III. IMPACTS OF BREAST FLATTENING 11A. Biology of Normal Breast Development 11B. Impacts of Breast Flattening on Physical Health 13C. Impacts of Breast Flattening on Mental Health 14D. Impacts of Breast Flattening on Sexual Function 15E. Reflections on Reported Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Impacts 15IV. CONTEXT: MOTIVATIONS DERRIVING FROM EVOLVING &EXISTING SOCIAL CONDITIONS 18A. Changing Marriage Practices 18B. Control of Sexual and Reproductive Rights 20C. Unequal Power Relations between Girls and Men 23D. Understandings of Human Developmental Stages and Puberty 26V. BARRIERS TO CHANGE 27A. Existence of “Belief Traps” and Traditional Practices 27B. Limited Access to Alternative Options 29VII. APPROACHES TO END THE PRACTICE
 
30A. Advocacy Work by NGOs
 
30B. Existing and Proposed Legal Instruments 31VIII. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 32APPENDIX A: LIST OF INTERVIEWS CONDUCTED IN CAMEROON 35APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW GUIDE 37

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->