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Integrating LBS, GIS and SMS Technologies for the Effective Monitoring of Road Network

Integrating LBS, GIS and SMS Technologies for the Effective Monitoring of Road Network

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Published by ijcsis
This paper presents an integrated framework of Geographic Information System (GIS), Android Platform and a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) equipped with interactive communication capabilities. The model integrates the design of the database and the management of implementation of the monitoring system which includes the operations of query and analysis using the web and desktop applications. This study aims to apply techniques of analysis of the road network in a GIS to collect geographic data on the monitoring station and the roads. The information on road infrastructure is not only useful for locating monitoring stations, but it is also important to guide a station to follow the shortest path to achieve the objectives of management and routing. Optimal routes based on the minimum cost are identified using Dijkstra’s algorithm. This paper also presents a software development on Android Platform which applies Cell Identifier method for improving the accuracy of location, it is not necessary to have an Internet connection as the requesting emergency can use a Short Message Service (SMS) to request an urgent service. The proposed system should be an effective and intelligent tool for a rapid intervention and to improve the monitoring of the road network which can eventually be extended to a national infrastructure of GIS. Simulated test cases have been carried out for network of Mohammedia City in Morocco.
This paper presents an integrated framework of Geographic Information System (GIS), Android Platform and a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) equipped with interactive communication capabilities. The model integrates the design of the database and the management of implementation of the monitoring system which includes the operations of query and analysis using the web and desktop applications. This study aims to apply techniques of analysis of the road network in a GIS to collect geographic data on the monitoring station and the roads. The information on road infrastructure is not only useful for locating monitoring stations, but it is also important to guide a station to follow the shortest path to achieve the objectives of management and routing. Optimal routes based on the minimum cost are identified using Dijkstra’s algorithm. This paper also presents a software development on Android Platform which applies Cell Identifier method for improving the accuracy of location, it is not necessary to have an Internet connection as the requesting emergency can use a Short Message Service (SMS) to request an urgent service. The proposed system should be an effective and intelligent tool for a rapid intervention and to improve the monitoring of the road network which can eventually be extended to a national infrastructure of GIS. Simulated test cases have been carried out for network of Mohammedia City in Morocco.

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Published by: ijcsis on May 15, 2012
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12/14/2012

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Integrating LBS, GIS and SMS Technologies for theEffective Monitoring of Road Network 
Souad El houssaini*, Abdelmajid Badri
Laboratoire d'Electronique, Electrotechnique, Automatique & Traitement de l’Information
 
Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Mohammedia, Université Hassan II Mohammedia-Casablanca, B.P.146Mohammedia, Moroccosouad_elhoussaini@yahoo.fr ; abdelmajid_badri@yahoo.fr
 Abstrac
 —
This paper presents an integrated framework of Geographic Information System (GIS), Android Platform and aRelational Database Management System (RDBMS) equippedwith interactive communication capabilities. The modelintegrates the design of the database and the management of implementation of the monitoring system which includes theoperations of query and analysis using the web and desktopapplications. This study aims to apply techniques of analysis of the road network in a GIS to collect geographic data on themonitoring station and the roads. The information on roadinfrastructure is not only useful for locating monitoring stations,but it is also important to guide a station to follow the shortestpath to achieve the objectives of management and routing.Optimal routes based on the minimum cost are identified usingDijkstra’s algorithm. This paper also presents a softwaredevelopment on Android Platform which applies Cell Identifiermethod for improving the accuracy of location, it is notnecessary to have an Internet connection as the requestingemergency can use a Short Message Service
 
(SMS) to request anurgent service. The proposed system should be an effective andintelligent tool for a rapid intervention and to improve themonitoring of the road network which can eventually beextended to a national infrastructure of GIS. Simulated testcases have been carried out for network of Mohammedia City inMorocco.
 Keywords: GIS;Location; Routing; SMS;Android; Cell Identifier .
I.
 
INTRODUCTIONRoad safety has long been a major concern in the roadsector. Road accidents can cause serious injury or death;these effects can also lead to significant economic losses forthe payee. The accelerated rapid development of wirelessnetwork and mobile computing technologies has increasedthe convenience of mobile information services for to solvingreal-life problems, such as monitoring of road accidents. Ingeneral, the Location-Based Service (LBS), a softwareapplication which retrieves information about where a mobiledevice is located, uses GPS (Global Positioning System) toindicate the geographical position of the mobile device. Sinceall mobile devices cannot be equipped with GPS receiver, theGPS may not be suitable for location of the requestingemergency. In order to solve this problem, Cell Identifierwhich indicates mobile device position by using station baseinformation is introduced in this research. With the facilitiesof Android that provides LBS components for retrievinginformation about where a mobile device is located [1], asystem that retrieves the location of the mobile wasdeveloped. The results from this process are composed of mobile’s particulars information: MCC (Mobile CountryCode), MNC (Mobile Network Code), Cell ID (CellIdentifier)
 
and LAC (Location Area Code), this information issent by SMS from the mobile of requesting emergency to themonitoring system. Teleoperator can use these clues to locatethe phone and inform the monitoring stations in order to saveproperty and people.This study aims also to implement and evaluate amethodology based on GIS (Geographic Information System)to determine optimal routes of the road network using keyinformation items based on cost of distance. With this paperwe will try to help and fill that gap, presenting a decision toolfor monitoring stations for location and routing. Thisapproach saves time. This article is comprised of thefollowing parts: Part 2, which introduces available tools; Part3, which describes the structure of the proposed system; Part4 which examines the implementation; Part 5, whichdiscusses the experiment result; and finally Part 6, theconclusion.II.
 
AVAILABLE TOOLS
 A.
 
Global Positioning System (GPS): Outdoor  Localization System
 
GPS is a system used for determining the position of interesting objects such as person, pets or vehicles. Thissystem receives satellite signals and calculates the position of mobile device of which a SIM card is installed for sendingthe co-ordinate (latitude and longitude) of its position to therecipient [1].
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 3, March 20121http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
While GPS is widely used in outdoor localization, it does notperform effectively in indoor localization. This is because itlacks the ability to pierce through building wall and requirescustom infrastructures for every area in which localization isto be performed [2, 3].
 B.
 
Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM): Indoor Localization System
GSM is a digital mobile telephony system which is wildlyused in most part of the world. GSM identifies mobile deviceposition by using Cell Identifier method which retrievesinformation from cell tower. The Cell Identifier methodprovides many benefits for localization, utilizing the widelyand most accessible network infrastructure in most parts of the world [3]. Therefore this method is applied in our systemfor finding the position of requesting emergency.
C.
 
 Android Platform
Android is a platform for mobile device developed byGoogle. It provides a complete set of software development:operating system, tools and APIs necessary to begindeveloping applications [4]. The java-based programmingmakes Android widely used in developing mobile application[1]. In this research, Android Cell ID API was applied toobtain the Cell ID of an Android mobile.
 D.
 
Geographic Information System (GIS)
Geography information systems have been improvingsince 1970s. GIS is an essential tool for location mapping,dynamic condition visualization, and decision making [5–7].Geospatial data are useful in monitoring response toaccidents. The analysis of real-time data could be achievedthrough GIS during the response phase to supportvisualization and automation for efficient decision making.Research has been conducted in GIS that focused on areassuch as shortest path analysis [8, 9]. This shows the greatpotential of GIS applications to facilitate the possibility of having a response time shorter if the geospatial information isimplemented in the initial phase of response to accidents.III.
 
STRUCTURE OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM
 A.
 
 Requirements
 
Figure 1 depicts a use case and the use case diagram forthe Management System for Road Safety (MSRS). Use casesare used for documentation of functional requirements andfor communication between stakeholders and developers.This is a common practice in software engineering thatensures the software developers understand the requirements.Thus, the developed system is expected to address therequirements set by the stakeholders.
Figure 1: Use case diagram and use case for MSRS.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 3, March 20122http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
 B.
 
System design
The web framework based on a three-tier architectureconsisting of the client layer, middleware layer and the layerof the database (Figure 2). These components togetherprovide a unified interface for consultation data, request anddecision making for users, the database is accessed throughthe Internet, in such a way that the user does not need to beaware of the location of the database, it is sufficient that theuser is able to consult, add and modify the data as needed.First of all, after installing our program in Androidmobile, the requesting emergency clicks the button "sendsms". Moreover, the position of the mobile will be sent inreal-time to monitoring system by retrieving mobileinformation from the closest cell site consisting of MNC,MCC, Cell ID and LAC, which will be further used forretrieving latitude and longitude of the mobile. GSM modemreceives this SMS, the monitoring system saves in thedatabase the data contained in this SMS. A GSM modem canbe an external modem device, a PC card installed in anotebook computer, or a standard GSM mobile phone, in ourcase we used GSM mobile phone to test our application. TheAndroid service is applied to send all of information tomonitoring system. The advantage of this system is toprovide clues of location for teleoperator to notify themonitoring station to serve the requesting emergency.Application uses PostgreSQL as the databasemanagement system with the geospatial extension PostGIS.Additional to relational queries, PostGIS provides spatialqueries to the users. The GIS products used are Mapserverand Cartoweb, Mapserver is used here just as libraryPhpMapScript, Cartoweb is a solution designed for the web,it allows its architecture CartoClient / CartoServer to answerseveral web service in the world of free Web Mapping. It fitseasily with Apache and php5. Web-based GIS users can use aWeb browser to navigate maps and to complete basic spatialanalysis. The requests from the user are sent to clients by wayof HTML forms. The form is passed to the Web serverApache and a gateway at the Web server passes the request toGIS server Cartoweb, then Cartoweb queries the database.IV.
 
IMPLEMENTATION
 A.
 
 Implementation of Dijkstra’s Algorithm
Dijkstra's algorithm calculates the least accumulated costbetween the destination node and every other node, and thenfinds the least-cost path from any origin nodes to thedestination node.The Dijkstra’s algorithm is very similar to the A* algorithm.The cost function (c) used to evaluate shortest paths in theDijkstra algorithm is augmented by an estimator function thatis used to estimate the shortest path between two given graphnodes [i.e., c(s, d) = g(s, v) + h(v, d), where g(s, v) is the costfrom source s to v and h(v, d) is the heuristic estimated costfrom v to the destination d]. The estimator function is aheuristic function that can be chosen arbitrarily. If theestimator function is 0, A* turns into Dijkstra’s algorithm[10].In our system, the routing service has been implementedusing the Dijkstra's algorithm in the road network of the cityof Mohammedia. The algorithm was implemented with PHP5in Cartoweb environment. The version of Cartoweb used is3.5.0 and runs with Windows XP operating system. Cartoweb
Figure 2: The structure of the proposed system.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 3, March 20123http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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