Trailing effect is another issue when dealing with WLAN.Basically, WLAN driver use sliding window to cache beaconmessages up to 10 seconds according to the driver design.Consequently, if a user is walking away from an access point,even after he is out of range of the radio signal, the access point will still be visible until timeout occurs. 
Signal aliasing refers to two points that are far apart physically but may be close together in signal space. This usually happen because of the complex indoor propagation environment. For instance, the signal strength at a point close to an AP may besimilar to another point which is far away essentially becausethe former point is receiving an obstructed signal due to work while the latter point receives an unobstructed signal.Placement of APs in the building layout is very essential insolving this problem. 
Techniques for locating mobile stationThe idea of locating mobile station was first introduced byFigel et al. in 1969 when they tried to locate a vehicle by usingsignal attenuation method. Ever since, researches have beendone on finding other ways of locating mobile station. Someof these location techniques are received signal strength fromFigel et al. in 1969; angle detection by Porter in 1971; andarrival time measurement by Staras and Honickrnan in 1977.
Received Signal Strength (RSS)
Signal strength method which is based on signal attenuation isthe distance between the Access points and the mobile station.The distance can be calculated either at the Mobile station or the Base station.Lin et al. in 2004  proposed a mobile location systemwhich used weighted centroid method based on the ratios of distance between the access points and the mobile stationderived from the difference of signal attenuation. The benefitof this proposed method is that it does not require perfect pathloss and shadowing models. Also, this system can fit directlyinto the indoor infrastructure without any hardwaremodification.P. Bahl and V. Padmanabhan have also developed a systemcalled RADAR which is based on Received Signal Strength.The system collect the RSS from all detected Access pointsand compared it to the tuple already stored in the Radio Mapusing search techniques that computes the Euclidean distance between each SS tuple and then choose the one with theminimal distance.
Time of Arrival
Time of arrival (TOA) is referred as a multilateral method thatis used to locate the position of a mobile station by measuringthe time that it takes for a signal to travel from the mobilestation to the base station. Generally, in traditional geometricinterpretation, TOAs generate circles whose intersections givethe estimate location of the transmitter.In the paper, “A New Approach to the Geometry of TOALocation” Caffery proposed a new geometrical interpretationin which instead of using circular LOPs to determine the position of the transmitter, straight lines of position is used.The straight LOPs come from a simple observation regardingthe geometry of the system and are not obtained fromlinearization. 
Time Difference of Arrival
Similarly to TOA, time difference of arrival (TDOA) uses thesame concept except that it uses time differences measurementrather than absolute time measured. Also, TDOA requires aminimum of three nodes for its most basic operation. Thefigure below demonstrates a system diagram of how TDOAcan be implemented in WLAN. In this system, all the APsneed to listen to the same client which is a limitation of thissystem since APs around a specific client can be set to variousfrequency channels and therefore can only listen to their selected frequency channel. 
Localizations’ techniquesIn this section, 4 types of localization techniques have beendiscussed.
Weighted Center-of-Gravity Algorithm
The approach in this algorithm is that a value is assigned toevery participating access point or node. Given (n) elasticcords connected between the actual position and every access points. So, AP with more tension will attract the approximated position closer to itself. The tension is calculated based on theinverse power law and the power value (
) is variable andapproximated in training phase which can be formulated as:Eq 1: Weighted Center-of-Gravity AlgorithmWhere
and x represent the estimated coordinates, x
represents n-th AP position and its corresponding RSS.This method is suitable for mobile devices as the memoryfootprint is very small since the calculation only requires thelocation of APs and their environment value (
Triangulation is normally used in GPS system. For each AP, acircle is formed with the radius of signal strength and centeredat the AP. The circle shows locus where the user may besituated. To estimate position, intersection points are collectedand permuted to form triangles where the centroid of thesmallest triangle refers to the position of the user.Triangulation does not require high computation but thedisadvantage of this method is that if there are too fewcandidates to form triangles, the result may not be tooaccurate. Moreover, if the global signal level fluctuates,triangulation may not adapt to the new level.
Smallest M-Vertex Polygon Algorithm (SMP)
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 3, March 201215http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500