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09 Paper 29021240 IJCSIS Camera Ready Pp. 58-63

09 Paper 29021240 IJCSIS Camera Ready Pp. 58-63

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 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 3, 2012
 
Performance Comparison of Assorted Color Spacesfor Multilevel Block Truncation Coding based FaceRecognition
Dr. H.B. Kekre
Senior ProfessorComputer Engineering Department
MPSTME, SVKM’s NMIMS
 (Deemed-to-be University)Mumbai, India
Dr. Sudeep Thepade
Associate ProfessorComputer Engineering Department
MPSTME,SVKM’s
NMIMS(Deemed-to-be University)Mumbai, India
Karan Dhamejani,Sanchit Khandelwal,Adnan Azmi
B.Tech StudentsComputer Engineering DepartmentMPSTME
, SVKM’s
NMIMS(Deemed-to-be University)Mumbai, India
 Abstract
 — 
 
The paper presents a performance analysis of Multilevel Block Truncation Coding based Face Recognitionamong widely used color spaces. In [1], Multilevel BlockTruncation Coding was applied on the RGB color space up tofour levels for face recognition. Better results were obtainedwhen the proposed technique was implemented using Ke
kre’s
LUV (
K’LUV
) color space [25]. This was the motivation to testthe proposed technique using assorted color spaces. Forexperimental analysis, two face databases are used. First one is
“Face Database”
, developed by Dr.Libor Spacek which has 1000face images and the second one is
“Our Own Database”
whichhas 1600 face images. The experimental results showed thatBlock Truncation Level 4 (BTC-Level 4) gave the best result inevery color space. It is observed that the proposed techniquefunctions better in the YIQ color space.
 Keywords- Face recognition, Block Truncation Coding, RGB, K 
’ 
 LUV, YIQ, YUV, YCbCr, YCrgCrb, Multilevel BTC.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
Face recognition plays an imperative role in identification andfor authentication purpose, in our everyday lives. In real time,this identification must be efficient, liable and faster. Facerecognition is preferred over other techniques like fingerprintrecognition, iris recognition because it does not requireexplicit cooperation from users. Also special equipments arenot required to capture the image [21, 22, 23]. It is a computerapplication for automatically identifying or verifying a personfrom a digital image or a video frame from a video source.Face recognition can be achieved by comparing the inputquery face image with the existing face images stored in thedatabase. It is the fastest growing biometric technology. Someof the applications of face recognition include physical,security and computer access controls, law enforcement [12,13], criminal list verification, surveillance at various places[15], forensic, authentication at airports [17], etc.A large number of face detection algorithms are derived fromalgorithmic approach [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 24] and some imagemorphological techniques [18]. However most of the worksconcentrate on single face detection, with some constrainedenvironments. In this paper performance comparison of Multilevel Block Truncation Coding [1] using various colorspaces has been carried out on two face databases. Resultsfurther revealed that the YIQ color space outperforms all theother color spaces at each stage of Multilevel BTC.II.
 
BLOCK TRUNCATION CODING AND
M
ULTILEVEL BLOCKTRUNCATION CODING
 Block truncation coding (BTC) [11, 12, 13, 14] is a relativelysimple image coding technique developed in the early years of digital imaging more than 29 years ago. Block TruncationCoding (BTC) was first developed in 1979 for grayscaleimage coding [13]. Although it is a simple technique, BTC hasplayed an important role in the history of digital image codingin the sense that many advanced coding techniques have beendeveloped based on BTC or inspired by the success of BTC. Itis a straightforward technique which demands very lesscomputational complexity.In the proposed technique, Multilevel Block TruncationCoding, BTC has been implemented using the RGB colorspace up till four levels [1, 13]. The feature vector size atBTC-Level 1, BTC-Level 2, BTC-Level 3 and BTC-Level 4 is6, 12, 24 and 48 respectively. In the same way BTC isimplemented on the f 
ollowing color spaces: K’LUV
, YUV,YCbCr, YIQ and YCgCb
.
58http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 3, 2012
 III.
 
C
ONSIDERED
C
OLOR SPACES
[12,26,27]
 A.
 
 Kekre’s LUV 
[25]
K’LUV color space is a sp
ecial case of Kekre transform.Where L gives luminance and U and V gives chromaticityvalues of color image. Positive value of U indicatesprominence of red component in color image and negativevalue of V indicates prominence of green component.Equation (1) gives the RGB to LUV conversion matrix whichindicates the corresponding L, U and V components for animage from the R, G and B components.
 
(1)
 
The reverse conversion, that is from LUV color space to RGBcolor space is given in (2).

 
(2)
 B.
 
YCbCr 
In YCbCr color Space, Y gives luminance and Cb and Crgives chromaticity values of color image.Equation (3) gives the RGB to YCbCr conversion matrixwhich indicates the corresponding Y, Cb and Cr componentsfor an image from the R, G and B components.

=
.
 
(3)
The reverse conversion, that is from LUV color space to RGBcolor space is given in (4).
=
.

 (4)
C.
 
YUV 
In YUV color space, Y component gives the luminance(brightness) of the color and while U and V components givethe chrominance (color).Equation (5) gives the RGB to YUV conversion matrix whichindicates the corresponding Y, U and V components for animage from the R, G and B components.
=
.
 
(5)The reverse conversion, that is from YUV color space to RGBcolor space is given in Equation (6).
=
.
 
(6)
 D.
 
YIQ
The YIQ color space is derived from YUV colour space. I standsfor in phase and Q for Quadrature.
Equation (7) gives the RGB to YIQ conversion matrix whichindicates the corresponding Y, I and Q components for animage from the R, G and B components.
=

.
 
(7)
 
The reverse conversion, that is from YIQ color space to RGBcolor space is given in (8).
=
.
(8)
 E.
 
YCgCb
To get Y, Cg and Cb components we need the conversion of RGB to YCgCb. The RGB to YCgCb conversion matrix isgiven in (9) gives the Y, Cg, Cb components of color imagefor respective R, G and B components.

(9)The YCgCb to RGB conversion matrix given in (10) gives theR, G, B components of color image for respective Y, Cg andCb components.

(10)
 
59http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 3, 2012
IV.
 
PROPOSED METHOD
 To calculate the feature vector of each image in the databaseset and the query image, Multilevel Block Truncation Codinghas been used for each of the assorted color space.At each level of BTC, the feature vector of the query image iscompared with the feature vector of each image in the trainingset. The comparison (Similarity measurement) is done byMean Square Error (MSE) given by equation 11.



 
(11
)
Where,
I & I’ are two feature vectors of size M*N which are being
compared.False Acceptance Ratio (FAR) and Genuine Acceptance Ratio(GAR) have been used as the performance evaluationparameters to assess the competence of each considered colorspace.V.
 
IMPLEMENTATION
 
 A.
 
 Platform
The effectuation of the Multilevel BTC is done in MATLAB2010. It is carried out on a computer using an Intel Core i5-2410M CPU
 
(2.4 GHz).
 
 B.
 
 Database
The experiments were performed on two face databases.
 
1)
 
 Face Database [16]
This database is created by Dr Libor consisting of 1000images (each with 180 pixels by 200 pixels), corresponding to100 persons in 10 poses each, including both males andfemales. All the images are captured against a dark or brighthomogeneous background, little variation of illumination,different facial expressions and details. The subjects sit atfixed distance from the camera and are asked to speak, whilsta sequence of images is taken. The speech is used to introducefacial expression variation. The images were taken in a singlesession. The ten poses of Face database are shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Sample images from Face database
 
2)
 
Our Own Database [1, 20]
This database consists of 1600 face images of 160 people (92males and 68 females).For each person 10 images are taken.The images in the database are captured under numerousillumination settings. The images are taken with ahomogenous background with the subjects having differentexpressions. The images are of variable sizes, unlike the Facedatabase. The ten poses of Our Own Database are shown inFigure 2.
Figure 2: Sample images from Our Own Database
VI.
 
R
ESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
 False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and Genuine Acceptance Rate(GAR) are standard performance evaluation parameters of face recognition system.The False acceptance rate (FAR) is the measure of thelikelihood that the biometric security system will incorrectly
accept an access attempt by an unauthorized user. A system’s
FAR typically is stated as the ratio of the number of falseacceptances divided by the number of identification attempts.FAR = (False Claims Accepted/Total Claims) X 100(12)The Genuine Acceptance Rate (GAR) is evaluated bysubtracting the FAR values from 100.GAR=100-FAR (in percentage) (13)For each color space, 10000 queries (10 images for each of the1000 people) are fired on face database and 16000 queries (10images for each of the 1600 people) are fired on Our OwnDatabase. At the end, average FAR and GAR of all queries inrespective face databases are considered for performanceranking of BTC levels and of the color spaces.For optimal performance the FAR values must be less andaccordingly the GAR values must be high for each successivelevels of BTC.
60http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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