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Step Tapered Waveguide with Cylindrical Waveguide

Step Tapered Waveguide with Cylindrical Waveguide

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Published by ijcsis
Tapered Waveguide is a waveguide in which a physical or electrical characteristic changes continuously with distance along the axis of the waveguide. Tapered waveguide offer an excellent means of converting microwave mode sizes to connect Microwave devices of different cross-sectional dimensions. This paper discusses the waveguide component for interconnecting rectangular and circular waveguide using step tapering. Model is designed for the frequency range from 2 to 4 GHz. Dominant Mode conversions ie from TE10 to TM11 is considered for tapering techniques. Step tapering is studied at different step sizes 4mm to 10 mm and analysis is done. All simulations done with CST Microwave studio and S parameters and E field parameters are analyzed. Simulation result shows that wave is properly propagated with no power reflection and low power loss.
Tapered Waveguide is a waveguide in which a physical or electrical characteristic changes continuously with distance along the axis of the waveguide. Tapered waveguide offer an excellent means of converting microwave mode sizes to connect Microwave devices of different cross-sectional dimensions. This paper discusses the waveguide component for interconnecting rectangular and circular waveguide using step tapering. Model is designed for the frequency range from 2 to 4 GHz. Dominant Mode conversions ie from TE10 to TM11 is considered for tapering techniques. Step tapering is studied at different step sizes 4mm to 10 mm and analysis is done. All simulations done with CST Microwave studio and S parameters and E field parameters are analyzed. Simulation result shows that wave is properly propagated with no power reflection and low power loss.

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Published by: ijcsis on May 15, 2012
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Step Tapered waveguide with cylindricalwaveguide
Harshukumar Khare,M.E (EXTC) Final year studentTEC, Nerul, Navi-Mumbaiharshukhare@gmail.com Prof. R.D. Patane
 
Asst. Proffessor (EXTC)TEC, Nerul, Navi-Mumbairrpatne@yahoo.co.in 
 Abstract:
Tapered Waveguide is a waveguide in which aphysical or electrical characteristic changes continuously withdistance along the axis of the waveguide. Tapered waveguideoffer an excellent means of converting microwave mode sizes toconnect Microwave devices of different cross-sectionaldimensions. This paper discusses the waveguide component forinterconnecting rectangular and circular waveguide using steptapering. Model is designed for the frequency range from 2 to 4GHz. Dominant Mode conversions ie from TE10 to TM11 isconsidered for tapering techniques. Step tapering is studied atdifferent step sizes 4mm to 10 mm and analysis is done. Allsimulations done with CST Microwave studio and Sparameters and E field parameters are analyzed. Simulationresult shows that wave is properly propagated with no powerreflection and low power loss.
 Key words: Single & Double Step Tapering, Cylindricawaveguide, CST, S parameter, E Field 
I.
 
INTRODUCTIONA rectangular waveguide supports TM and TE modesbut not TEM waves. A rectangular waveguide cannotpropagate below some certain frequency. This frequency iscalled the cut-off frequency.Circular waveguides offer implementation advantagesover rectangular waveguide in that installation is muchsimpler when forming runs for turns and offsets -particularly when large radii are involved and the windloading is less on a round cross-section, meaning towers donot need to be as robust. Manufacturing is generally simpler,too, since only one dimension the radius needs to bemaintained. Applications where differential rotation isrequired, like a rotary joint for a radar antenna, absolutelyrequire a circular cross-section, so even if rectangularwaveguide is used for the primary routing, a transition tocircular and then possibly back to rectangular is needed.Calculations for circular waveguide require the applicationof Bessel functions, so working equations with a cheapcalculator is not going to happen. However, evenspreadsheets have Bessel function capability nowadays, sodetermining cutoff frequencies, field strengths, and any of the other standard values associated with circular waveguidecan be done relatively easily.A waveguide taper can always be built to have as low amode conversion as is wanted in a certain frequency bandmerely by making it long enough. However, an optimallydesigned taper has the smallest possible length for a givendifference in diameters at its two ends for a specifiedunwanted mode level in a given frequency band. Taperedwaveguide for matching impedance is nothing but a taperedwaveguide in which only one mode is propagating. Powercan only be converted into reflected waves, and it is thisreflected power which is kept small in a properly designedtransmission line taper. If more than one mode ispropagating, power will be scattered not only into thereflected wave but also into the other propagating modes. Infact , the power scattered into backward traveling waves isquite small compared to the power scattered into forwardtraveling waves, and only the latter need be considered in amultimode waveguide taper. Therefore, the modeconversion in the waveguide transition corresponds to thereflection in transmission line taper.A waveguide mode is a unique arrangement of theelectric and magnetic fields propagating in the z-directionthat satisfies all Maxwell equations and boundary conditionsimposed by the geometry of the conductors of thetransmission system. Various waveguide modes are TEM,TE, TM and Hybrid modes. Dominant mode in Rectangularwaveguide is TE10 and in circular waveguide TE11. Toconvert dominant mode in rectangular waveguide todominant mode in circular waveguide tapered waveguide isused. There are different types of tapering such as steptapering, conical tapering elliptical tapering, etc. Analysishas been done using Step tapering with CST MicrowaveStudio.II.
 
DESIGN ASPECTThe simulation was done by Transient solver of CSTMicrowave Studio. The Cartesian coordinate system (x, y,and z) is used to model the 3D structure. Design & analysishas been done with tapering and without tapering.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 3, March 201264http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
A.
 
Design without tapering
The rectangular brick is directly connected to circularwaveguide. Port of rectangular brick (Port 2) is excited andthe S parameters are obtained by Transient Solver. 3Dmodel of cylindrical waveguide and Rectangular Brick Without tapering is shown in fig 1.Fig 1 - 3D model of cylindrical waveguide andRectangular Brick Without taperingS11 plot gives that around 2.1 GHz S11 goes upto 19dBas shown in Fig 2 which is not a desirable case as hugeamount of power is reflected back to the source damagingthe network analyzer.Fig 2 - S11 plotS21 plot is shown in fig. 3 which indicates that nosufficient output is coupled to the output port as it isapproaching to 0dB i.e. no power is coupled from port 1 toport 2 and vice versa.Fig 3 - S21 plot
B.
 
Design with taperingi) Single Step tapering
The 3D model of single step tapering is shown in Fig 4.Fig 4 - 3D model of cylindrical waveguide andRectangular Brick with Step taperingSimulated results for S parameters & E field arecalculated for different step sizes for sizes of 4 mm & 10mmtheir S11 and S21 are shown in Fig 5.It is seen from Fig 5 that for step size 4 mm plots thesufficient amount of power is reflected back which showsthat taper is not properly coupled and for step size 10 mm itis seen that no power is reflected back hence source is safein this case.Step size 4mm Step Size 10mmS11 S11S21 S21Fig-5– S11 & S21 for Step size 4mm & 10 mmE Field distribution in single step tapered and cylindricalwaveguide is shown in Fig. 6.Fig-6 E Field distribution in single step tapering
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 3, March 201265http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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