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An Efficient Automatic Attendance System Using Fingerprint Reconstruction Technique

An Efficient Automatic Attendance System Using Fingerprint Reconstruction Technique

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Published by ijcsis
Biometric time and attendance system is one of the most successful applications of biometric technology. One of the main advantage of a biometric time and attendance system is it avoids "buddy-punching". Buddy punching was a major loophole which will be exploiting in the traditional time attendance systems. Fingerprint recognition is an established field today, but still identifying individual from a set of enrolled fingerprints is a time taking process. Most fingerprint-based biometric systems store the minutiae template of a user in the database. It has been traditionally assumed that the minutiae template of a user does not reveal any information about the original fingerprint. This belief has now been shown to be false; several algorithms have been proposed that can reconstruct fingerprint images from minutiae templates. In this paper, a novel fingerprint reconstruction algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the phase image, which is then converted into the grayscale image. The proposed reconstruction algorithm reconstructs the phase image from minutiae. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is used to automate the whole process of taking attendance, manually which is a laborious and troublesome work and waste a lot of time, with its managing and maintaining the records for a period of time is also a burdensome task. The proposed reconstruction algorithm has been evaluated with respect to the success rates of type-I attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against the original fingerprint) and type-II attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against different impressions of the original fingerprint) using a commercial fingerprint recognition system. Given the reconstructed image from our algorithm, we show that both types of attacks can be effectively launched against a fingerprint recognition system.
Biometric time and attendance system is one of the most successful applications of biometric technology. One of the main advantage of a biometric time and attendance system is it avoids "buddy-punching". Buddy punching was a major loophole which will be exploiting in the traditional time attendance systems. Fingerprint recognition is an established field today, but still identifying individual from a set of enrolled fingerprints is a time taking process. Most fingerprint-based biometric systems store the minutiae template of a user in the database. It has been traditionally assumed that the minutiae template of a user does not reveal any information about the original fingerprint. This belief has now been shown to be false; several algorithms have been proposed that can reconstruct fingerprint images from minutiae templates. In this paper, a novel fingerprint reconstruction algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the phase image, which is then converted into the grayscale image. The proposed reconstruction algorithm reconstructs the phase image from minutiae. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is used to automate the whole process of taking attendance, manually which is a laborious and troublesome work and waste a lot of time, with its managing and maintaining the records for a period of time is also a burdensome task. The proposed reconstruction algorithm has been evaluated with respect to the success rates of type-I attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against the original fingerprint) and type-II attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against different impressions of the original fingerprint) using a commercial fingerprint recognition system. Given the reconstructed image from our algorithm, we show that both types of attacks can be effectively launched against a fingerprint recognition system.

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Published by: ijcsis on May 15, 2012
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012
An Efficient Automatic Attendance System UsingFingerprint Reconstruction Technique
Josphineleela.R
Research scholarDepartment of Computer Science and EngineeringSathyabamauniversityChennai,Indiailanleela@yahoo.com
Dr.M.Ramakrishnan
Professor/HOD-ITVelammal Engineering CollegeChennai,Indiaramkrishod@gmail.com 
 Abstract 
— Biometric time and attendance system is one of themost successful applications of biometric technology. One of themain advantage of a biometric time and attendance system is itavoids "buddy-punching". Buddy punching was a majorloophole which will be exploiting in the traditional timeattendance systems. Fingerprint recognition is an establishedfield today, but still identifying individual from a set of enrolledfingerprints is a time taking process. Most fingerprint-basedbiometric systems store the minutiae template of a user in thedatabase. It has been traditionally assumed that the minutiaetemplate of a user does not reveal any information about theoriginal fingerprint. This belief has now been shown to be false;several algorithms have been proposed that can reconstructfingerprint images from minutiae templates. In this paper, anovel fingerprint reconstruction algorithm is proposed toreconstruct the phase image, which is then converted into thegrayscale image. The proposed reconstruction algorithmreconstructs the phase image from minutiae. The proposedreconstruction algorithm is used to automate the whole process of taking attendance, manually which is a laborious andtroublesome work and waste a lot of time, with its managing andmaintaining the records for a period of time is also a burdensometask. The proposed reconstruction algorithm has been evaluatedwith respect to the success rates of type-I attack (match thereconstructed fingerprint against the original fingerprint) andtype-II attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint againstdifferent impressions of the original fingerprint) using acommercial fingerprint recognition system. Given thereconstructed image from our algorithm, we show that both typesof attacks can be effectively launched against a fingerprintrecognition system.
 Keywords
 —Fingerprint Reconstruction, attendance management system, Minutiae Extraction
 I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
(H 
 EADING
1)
Fingerprint reconstruction is one of the most well-known and publicized biometrics. Because of their uniquenessand consistency over time, fingerprints have been used foridentification over a century, more recently becomingautomated due to advancements in computed capabilities.Fingerprint reconstruction is popular because of the inherentease of acquisition, the numerous sources (e.g. ten fingers)available for collection, and their established use andcollections by law enforcement and immigration.Minutiae-based fingerprint matching algorithm [1]has been proposed to solve two problems: correspondence andsimilarity computation. For the correspondence problem, usean alignment-based greedy matching algorithm to establish thecorrespondences between minutiae.Cryptographic techniques are being widely used forensuring the secrecy and authenticity of information. Althoughseveral cryptosystems have proven security guarantees (e.g.,AES and RSA), the security relies on the assumption that thecryptographic keys are known only to the legitimate user.Maintaining the secrecy of keys is one of the main challengesin practical cryptosystems. However, passwords can be easilylost, stolen, forgotten, or guessed using social engineering anddictionary attacks. Limitations of password-basedauthentication can be alleviated by using strongerauthentication schemes, such as biometrics. Biometric systemsestablish the identity of a person based on his or heranatomical or behavioral traits, such as face, fingerprint, iris,voice, etc. Biometric authentication is more reliable thanpassword-based authentication because biometric traits cannotbe lost or forgotten and it is difficult to share or forge thesetraits. Hence, biometric systems offer a natural and reliablesolution to the problem of user authentication incryptosystems.Reliable information security mechanisms arerequired to combat the rising magnitude of identity theft in oursociety. While cryptography is a powerful tool to achieveinformation security, one of the main challenges incryptosystems is to maintain the secrecy of the cryptographickeys. Though biometric authentication can be used to ensurethat only the legitimate user has access to the secret keys, abiometric system itself is vulnerable to a number of threats.
77http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012
A critical issue in biometric systems is to protectthe template of a user which is typically stored in a database ora smart card. The fuzzy vault construct is a biometriccryptosystem that secures both the secret key and thebiometric template by binding them within a cryptographicframework. In [2], fuzzy vault scheme has been proposedbased on fingerprint minutiae. Since the fuzzy vault storesonly a transformed version of the template, aligning the queryfingerprint with the template is a challenging task. We extracthigh curvature points derived from the fingerprint orientationfield and use them as helper data to align the template andquery minutiae. The helper data itself do not leak anyinformation about the minutiae template, yet contain sufficientinformation to align the template and query fingerprintsaccurately. Further, we apply a minutiae matcher duringdecoding to account for nonlinear distortion and this leads tosignificant improvement in the genuine accept rate. Theperformance improvement can be achieved by using multiplefingerprint impressions during enrollment and verification.Because of the stability and uniqueness, fingerprint iswidely used in biometric identification. The matching methodis one of the most crucial technologies in the AutomatedFingerprint Identification System (AFIS). Whether twofingerprints are matched relies on the similarity measurebetween the effective features of them. There are mainly twokinds of features used in fingerprint matching: local featuresand global features. Two most prominent local ridgecharacteristics, called minutiae, are ridge ending and ridgebifurcation. Minutiae are the most widely used features in thematching process.The performance of Automated FingerprintIdentification System (AFIS) is highly defined by thesimilarity of effective features in fingerprints. Minutia is oneof the most widely used local features in fingerprint matching.In [3], proposes two global statistical features of fingerprintimage, including the mean ridge width and the normalizedquality estimation of the whole image, and proposed a novelfingerprint matching algorithm based on minutiae setscombined with the global statistical features. The algorithmproposed in this paper has the advantage of both local andglobal features in fingerprint matching. It can improve theaccuracy of similarity measure without increasing of time andmemory consuming.The non–linear distortion in the fingerprint imagesmakes it very difficult to handle matching as it changes thegeometrical position of the minutiae points. The regions, thatare affected, shift the geometry of the minutiae and hence posea potential threat to acceptance of a genuine match. Thedistortion is due to the pressure applied on the scanner, thestatic friction, the skin moisture, elasticity, and rotationaleffects, which occur during the acquisition. The level of distortion increases from the center towards the outer regions.The existing approaches for fingerprint matching are:minutiae–based, and correlation-based. The former has severaladvantages over the latter such as lower time complexity,better space complexity, less requirement of hardware etc.The uniqueness of a fingerprint is due to uniquepattern shown by the locations of the minutiae points–irregularities of a fingerprint–ridge endings, and bifurcations.A novel minutiae-based approach [4], has been proposed tomatch fingerprint images using similar structures. Distortionposes serious threats through altered geometry, increases falseminutiae, and hence makes it very difficult to find a perfectmatch. This algorithm divides fingerprint images into twoconcentric circular regions – inner and outer – based on thedegree of distortion. The algorithm assigns weight ages for aminutiae–pair match based on the region in which the pairexists.
 
The algorithm has two stages. In the first stage, theminutiae points are extracted, and in the second stage, thealigning and the matching of the fingerprint images are done.The algorithm is designed to reduce time taken in aligning,immediately after the calculation of the binary image.Recent advances in automated fingerprintidentification technology, coupled with the growing need forreliable person identification have resulted in an increased useof fingerprints in both government and civilian applicationssuch as border control, employment background checks, andsecure facility access. In [5], Quadratic differentials naturallydefine analytic orientation fields on planar surfaces. Thismethod proposed model orientation fields of fingerprints byspecifying quadratic differentials which is used for reliableperson identification. Models for all fingerprint classes such asarches, loops and whorls are laid out. These models areparameterized by few, geometrically interpretable parameterswhich are invariant under Euclidean motions. Potentialapplications of these models are the use of their parameters asindices of large fingerprint databases, as well as the definitionof intrinsic coordinates for single fingerprint images. Theaccuracy of models is still challenging task for arches.General characteristics of the fingerprint emerge asthe skin on the fingertip begins to differentiate. Fingerprintrecognition systems have the advantages of both ease of useand low cost.
 
Because among various biometric identifiers,such as face, signature, and voice, the fingerprint has one of the highest levels of distinctiveness and performance and it isthe most commonly used biometric modality. Haiyun Xu et.al., [6], proposed a novel method to represent minutiae set as afixed-length feature vector, which is invariant to translation,and in which rotation and scaling become translations, so thatthey can be easily compensated for recognition. Thesecharacteristics enable the combination of fingerprintrecognition systems with template protection schemes thatrequire a fixed-length feature vector. This method introducesthe concept of algorithms for two representation methods: thelocation-based spectral minutiae representation and theorientation-based spectral minutiae representation. Bothalgorithms are evaluated using two correlation-based spectralminutiae matching algorithms. The performance can beimproved by using a fusion scheme and singular points
.
Thespectral minutiae representation overcomes the drawbacks of the minutiae sets, thus broadening the application of minutiae-based algorithms. The minutiae extractor is not reliable itaffects the efficiency of spectral minutiae representation.
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 3, March 2012
Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems(AFISs) have played an important role in many forensics andcivilian applications. There are two main types of searches inforensics AFIS: ten print search and latent search. In ten printsearch, the rolled or plain fingerprints of the 10 fingers of asubject are searched against the fingerprint database of knownpersons. In latent search, a latent print developed from a crimescene is searched against the fingerprint database of knownpersons. Latent Fingerprint matching [7], propose a system formatching latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to rolledfingerprints enrolled in law enforcement databases whichovercomes the difficulties in poor quality of ridge impressions,small finger area, and large nonlinear distortion. In addition tominutiae, extended features are also used includingsingularity, ridge quality map, ridge flow map, ridgewavelength map, and skeleton. In order to evaluate the relativeimportance of each extended feature, these features wereincrementally used in the order of their cost in marking bylatent experts. The matching accuracy should be improved.Despite tremendous progress made in automaticfingerprint identification systems, matching incomplete opartial fingerprints such as latent prints remains a criticalchallenge today. Existing partial fingerprint algorithmsconcentrate on improving the accuracy of one-to-one matchingbased on local ridge details However, the performance of one-to-one matching depends on image quality as well as thenumber of high-level features detectable in the partialfingerprint segments. These ad hoc algorithms are designed onthe basis of more delicate one-to-one comparisons. When usedin one-to-many applications, they generally assume sequentialmatching or that the candidate list for such matching hasalready been established. However, sequential matching isnot efficient for large-scale identification, which can involvethousands or millions of records in the target database, andretrieving a short and reliable list of candidates for matching isdifficult in practice. An innovative method [8], propose ananalytical approach for reconstructing the global topologyrepresentation from a partial fingerprint. Analytical approachsolves the problem of retrieving candidate lists for matchingpartial fingerprints by exploiting global topological features.First, an inverse orientation model for describing thereconstruction problem is presented. Then, a generalexpression for all valid solutions to the inverse model isprovided. This allows us to preserve data fidelity in theexisting segments while exploring missing structures in theunknown parts. Further developed algorithms for estimatingthe missing orientation structures based on some a prioriknowledge of ridge topology features are described. Thestatistical experiments show that the proposed model-basedapproach can effectively reduce the number of candidates forpair wised fingerprint matching, and thus significantlyimprove the system retrieval performance for partialfingerprint identification.Fingerprint matching systems generally use fourtypes of representation schemes: grayscale image, phaseimage, skeleton image, and minutiae, among which minutiae-based representation is the most widely adopted one. It hasbeen traditionally assumed that minutiae template does notretrieve any information about original fingerprint. In [9],three levels of information about the parent fingerprint can beelicited from a given minutiae template: the orientation field,the fingerprint class, and the friction ridge structure. Theorientation estimation algorithm determines the direction of local ridges using the evidence of minutiae triplets. Theestimated orientation field, along with the given minutiaedistribution, is then used to predict the class of the fingerprint.Finally, the ridge structure of the parent fingerprint isgenerated using streamlines that are based on the estimatedorientation field. Line Integral Convolution is used to imparttexture to the ensuing ridges, resulting in a ridge mapresembling the parent fingerprint. But the visual appearance of reconstructed fingerprint is not accurate.The location, position, as well as the type and qualityof the “minutiae” are factors taken into consideration in thetemplate creation stage. A minutiae-based template did notcontain enough information to allow the reconstruction of theoriginal fingerprint. A novel approach [10], is proposed toreconstruct fingerprint images from standard templates andexamines to what extent the reconstructed images are similarto the original ones. The efficacy of the reconstructiontechnique has been assessed by estimating the success chancesof a masquerade attack against nine different fingerprintrecognition algorithms. The experimental results show that thereconstructed images are very realistic and that, although it isunlikely that they can fool a human expert, there is a highchance to deceive state-of-the-art commercial fingerprintrecognition systems.The fingerprint recognition system is used forperson authentication and identification in industries and manycommercial appliances. The fingerprint recognition does nothave the efficiency in the case of fake fingerprints whichextracts minutiae from templates. The compactness of minutiae representation has created an impression that theminutiae template does not contain sufficient information toallow the reconstruction of the original grayscale fingerprintimage. In [11], a novel fingerprint reconstruction algorithm isproposed to reconstruct the phase image, which is thenconverted into the grayscale image. Reconstruction algorithmnot only gives the whole fingerprint, but the reconstructedfingerprint contains very few spurious minutiae. A fingerprintimage is represented as a phase image which consists of thecontinuous phase and the spiral phase. The proposedreconstruction algorithm has been evaluated with respect tothe success rates of type-I attack and Type II attacks using acommercial fingerprint recognition system. Reconstructionalgorithm should be modified in order to apply the importantproblems of latent fingerprint restoration. The proposedreconstruction algorithm is used to automate the whole processof taking attendance, manually which is a laborious andtroublesome work and waste a lot of time, with its managingand maintaining the records for a period of time is also aburdensome task.
79http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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