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Mawardi, Inovasi Dalam Pembelajaran Kimia

Mawardi, Inovasi Dalam Pembelajaran Kimia

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Learning is a process that allows a person to change his behavior quickly enough, and the changes are relatively fixed, so that similar changes do not need to happen again and again every new situation. Teaching is a complex act, in which the teaching of a teacher charged with using his skills in integrated, according to the message contained in the curriculum, which is unique in its application is simultaneously influenced by the components involved and associated with learning activities, including students who learning, teacher factors, learning resources and approaches and strategies. Chemistry is part of the Natural Sciences basically involves four elements: (1) product: the form of facts, principles, laws, theories and models (2) process: the procedure of solving problems through scientific methods, that includes observation, hypothesis formulation, experimental design, trial or investigation, hypothesis testing, evaluation, measurement, and inference, (3) application: the application form or the working methods of scientific and chemical concepts in everyday life, (4) attitude: the object of curiosity about natural phenomena, as well as causal relations that give rise to new problems can be solved through the correct procedure. Chemistry Curriculum Development is located on the match between the dimensions of knowledge (knowledge) and the dimensions of cognitive processes. Cognitive knowledge dimension contains the category of factual knowledge, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive. The fourth category is assumed to be located between the concrete (Factual) to abstract (metacognitif). While the dimensions of the cognitive processes include: remember (remember), understand (understand), applies (apply), analyze (Analyse), evaluate (evaluate), and create (create)

Learning is a process that allows a person to change his behavior quickly enough, and the changes are relatively fixed, so that similar changes do not need to happen again and again every new situation. Teaching is a complex act, in which the teaching of a teacher charged with using his skills in integrated, according to the message contained in the curriculum, which is unique in its application is simultaneously influenced by the components involved and associated with learning activities, including students who learning, teacher factors, learning resources and approaches and strategies. Chemistry is part of the Natural Sciences basically involves four elements: (1) product: the form of facts, principles, laws, theories and models (2) process: the procedure of solving problems through scientific methods, that includes observation, hypothesis formulation, experimental design, trial or investigation, hypothesis testing, evaluation, measurement, and inference, (3) application: the application form or the working methods of scientific and chemical concepts in everyday life, (4) attitude: the object of curiosity about natural phenomena, as well as causal relations that give rise to new problems can be solved through the correct procedure. Chemistry Curriculum Development is located on the match between the dimensions of knowledge (knowledge) and the dimensions of cognitive processes. Cognitive knowledge dimension contains the category of factual knowledge, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive. The fourth category is assumed to be located between the concrete (Factual) to abstract (metacognitif). While the dimensions of the cognitive processes include: remember (remember), understand (understand), applies (apply), analyze (Analyse), evaluate (evaluate), and create (create)

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Published by: Dr. Mawardi Anwar, M.Si on May 16, 2012
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MawardiProseding Seminar Nasional Kimia dan Pendidikan KimiaHKI Cabang Sumatera Barat, 22 Oktober 2011 pp. 244-252ISBN : 978-602-8821-28-5INNOVATION IN LEARNING CHEMISTRY, AN OVERVIEW TOERITIS *ByMawardi **Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,Padang State University, Jl. Prof. Dr.Hamka 25 131 Padang, IndonesiaE-mail: mawardianwar@yahoo.comAbstractLearning is a process that allows a person to change his behavior quickly enough, and thechanges are relatively fixed, so that similar changes do not need to happen again and againevery new situation. Teaching is a complex act, in which the teaching of a teacher chargedwith using his skills in integrated, according to the message contained in the curriculum,which is unique in its application is simultaneously influenced by the components involvedand associated with learning activities, including students who learning, teacher factors,learning resources and approaches and strategies. Chemistry is part of the Natural Sciencesbasically involves four elements: (1) product: the form of facts, principles, laws, theoriesand models (2) process: the procedure of solving problems through scientific methods, thatincludes observation, hypothesis formulation, experimental design, trial or investigation,hypothesis testing, evaluation, measurement, and inference, (3) application: the applicationform or the working methods of scientific and chemical concepts in everyday life, (4)attitude: the object of curiosity about natural phenomena, as well as causal relations thatgive rise to new problems can be solved through the correct procedure. ChemistryCurriculum Development is located on the match between the dimensions of knowledge(knowledge) and the dimensions of cognitive processes. Cognitive knowledge dimensioncontains the category of factual knowledge, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive.The fourth category is assumed to be located between the concrete (Factual) to abstract(metacognitif). While the dimensions of the cognitive processes include: remember(remember), understand (understand), applies (apply), analyze (Analyse), evaluate(evaluate), and create (create)
 
 245
INOVASI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN KIMIA, SUATU TINJAUANTOERITIS
*
OlehMawardi
**
 Laboratorium Kimia Analitik, Fakultas Matematika Dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam,Universitas Negeri Padang, Jl. Hamka Air Tawar Padang 25131, Indonesia E-mail:
 
mawardianwar@yahoo.com
 Abstrak 
Belajar merupakan suatu proses yang memungkin seseorang untuk mengubah tingkahlakunya cukup cepat, dan perubahan itu bersifat relatif tetap, sehingga
 perubahan yangserupa tidak perlu terjadi berulangkali setiap menghadapi situasi baru
. Mengajarmerupakan suatu perbuatan yang komplek, dimana dalam kegiatan mengajar seorang gurudituntut
menggunakan keterampilannya secara integratif 
, sesuai dengan pesan yangterkandung dalam kurikulum, yang dalam
aplikasinya secara unik 
dipengaruhi secarasimultan oleh
komponen-komponen yang terlibat dan terkait dengan kegiatan pembelajaran
, diantaranya
siswa yang belajar, faktor guru, sumber belajar dan pendekatan dan strategi yang digunaka.
Ilmu Kimia yang merupakan bagian dari IlmuPengetahuan Alam (IPA) atau sains pada dasarnya meliputi empat unsur, yaitu: (1) produk:berupa fakta, prinsip, hukum, teori dan model (2) proses: yaitu prosedur pemecahanmasalah melalui metode ilmiah, yang meliputi pengamatan, penyusunan hipotesis,perancangan eksperimen, percobaan atau penyelidikan, pengujian hipotesis, evaluasi,pengukuran, dan penarikan kesimpulan; (3) aplikasi: berupa penerapan metode atau kerjailmiah dan konsep kimia dalam kehidupan sehari-hari; (4) sikap: yaitu rasa ingin tahutentang obyek fenomena alam, serta hubungan sebab akibat yang menimbulkan masalahbaru yang dapat dipecahkan melalui prosedur yang benar. P
engembangan Kurikulum Kimia(IPA) terletak pada kesesuaian antara dimensi pengetahuan (
knowledge
) dan dimensi proseskognitif. Dimensi pengetahuan kognitif berisi katagori pengetahuan faktual, konseptual,prosedural, dan metakognitif. Keempat katagori tersebut diasumsikan terletak antara konkrit(faktual) sampai abstrak (metacognitif). Sedangkan dimensi proses kognitif meliputi:mengingat (
remember 
)
 ,
mengerti (
understand 
), menerapkan (
apply)
, menganalisis (
analyse
),mengevaluasi (
evaluate)
, dan mencipta (
create)
 
I.
 
Pendahuluan :
Belajar merupakan suatu proses yang memungkin seseorang untuk mengubahtingkah lakunya cukup cepat, dan perubahan itu bersifat relatif tetap, sehingga
 perubahan yang serupa tidak perlu terjadi berulangkali setiap menghadapi situasi baru
. Mengajarmerupakan suatu perbuatan yang komplek, dimana dalam kegiatan mengajar seorang gurudituntut
menggunakan keterampilannya secara integratif 
, sesuai dengan pesan yangterkandung dalam kurikulum, yang dalam
aplikasinya secara unik 
dipengaruhi secarasimultan oleh
komponen-komponen yang terlibat dan terkait dengan kegiatan pembelajaran
, antara lain: tujuan yang ingin dicapai, siswa yang belajar, faktor diri guru,
 
 246
sumber belajar, pendekatan dan strategi yang digunakan, fasilitas dan lingkungan belajarsiswa serta kurikulum yang berlaku.Substansi dari Ilmu Kimia sebagai bidang penyelidikan ilmiah terdiri dari komponen-komponen:
 proses
yang digunakan untuk mendapatkan (menemukan) pengetahuan kimia;
konsep umum
(kongkrit atau abtrak) dan
 fakta-fakta spesifik 
yang dihasilkan (produk);
 penerapan
(aplikasi) pengetahuan dalam memahami dan mengubah dunia,
implikasi
daripemahaman dan perubahan bagi individu dan masyarakat (sikap)(Gilbert, 2009), sertahubungan sebab akibat yang menimbulkan masalah baru yang dapat dipecahkan melaluiprosedur yang benar.Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional (Permendiknas) Nomor 22 Tahun 2006tentang Standar Isi merupakan salah satu acuan utama bagi satuan pendidikan dalampenyusunan kurikulum (KTSP). Standar isi merupakan gambaran lingkup materi minimaldan tingkat kompetensi minimal untuk mencapai kompetensi lulusan minimal pada jenjang dan jenis pendidikan tertentu. (Permendiknas No. 22 Tahun 2006). Standar isimemuat kerangka dasar dan struktur kurikulum, beban belajar, kurikulum tingkat satuanpendidikan, dan kalender pendidikan/akademik (Lampiran Permendiknas No. 22 Tahun2006). Kerangka dasar kurikulum memuat rambu-rambu yang dijadikan pedoman dalampenyusunan kurikulum yang kedalaman muatannya dituangkan dalam kompetensi, yaitustandar kompetensi (SK) dan kompetensi dasar (KD).Keterlaksanaan pembelajaran adalah ketercapaian standar isi dibandingkan dengankeadaan ideal, dalam hal : 1) desain atau rancangan pembelajaran, baik berupa penyusunansilabus maupun Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran (RPP); 2) pelaksanaan pembelajaranatau kegiatan belajar mengajar (KBM) dan 3) penilaian hasil pembelajaran. Untuk terujudnya keterlaksanaan standar isi terdapat beberapa masalah yang dihadapi guru,diantaranya, penjabaran kompetensi dasar menjadi indikator dan penjabaran materi pokok dalam KD menjadi uraian materi pokok dalam indikator. Materi pokok dalam KD adalahmateri minimal dari segi cakupan materi yaitu keluasan dan kedalaman materi, sehinggaharus diuraikan menjadi uraian materi pokok dengan dasar keluasan dan kedalaman materi.Disamping itu pemilihan pendekatan, metode, dan media pembelajaran, buku tekspelajaran dan buku non-teks mata pelajaran dan sistem penilaian hasil belajar secaramenyeluruh (aspek kognitif, afektif, dan psikomotorik) merupakan masalah lain yang harusdihadapi guru.Untuk melihat gambaran implementasikan pendidikan IPA, termasuk kimia, diIndonesia hasil penelitian yang dilakukan
Programme for International Student Assessment 
 

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