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The Roots of Militancy in Pakistan

The Roots of Militancy in Pakistan

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Published by Osama Mir

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Published by: Osama Mir on May 17, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/31/2013

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Prologue:
After a long era of struggles of our national hero’s QUAID
-E- AZAM MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH,LIAQUAT ALI KHAN, and ALLAMA IQBAL they finally succeeded to got a separate homeland forMUSLIMS. Where they can live according to the Islamic laws they cannot follow while livingwith Hindus in subcontinent. After along struggles and bloodshed on 14 AUGUST 1947PAKISTAN came into existence.Efficient politics play a vital role in the progress of a country. Different parties came intoexistence that have their own vision and manifesto which they are representing and theymake strategies how we will handle the internal and external affairs of the country. If theparties are taking such steps which are harmful for the country or if they for see that partiesare running the country affairs efficiently then MILTRY take over the government and starthandling the affairs of the country. Basically there are five main pillars in PAKISTAN politics.
 
Military
 
Democrats
 
Industrial/ merchandise
 
Political elite
 
Religious eliteThey all play a vital role in the affairs of the PAKISTAN politics. If anyone is not workingefficiently than others joint together and take charge of the government. But unluckily from the
day one in PAKISTAN’S politics everyone is using others for his
own interest. If we talk all the
eras of every political/ religious party who were the part in the PAKSITAN’S political historywords will end but the politics which different parties play in PAKISTAN’S political history did
not end. In every era dirty war is being played by our different partners and different politicalparties either they are religious parties or political parties. . Just because of short of time we are
 just discussing the political background from lat 1980’s onward.
 
 
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Political History of PAKIST
 AN from late 1980’s and onwards
 
Between 1979 and 1990, the sectarian and jihadi parties grew in number. The Afghan war in1980 played an important role in the growth of religious parties. Several new parties wereformed, and several existing one split into factions. Religious seminaries contributed to theproliferation, with seminary administrations building their own parties. Today, the heads of 215parties have their own seminaries.
Westernized culture
forced to change to
Eastern culture
.In
1983
Gen. and President Zia announces that he will lift the martial law but military will retainthe key role in future governments. As with most any kind of political behavior, there are
General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (August 12, 1924
 –
August 17, 1988)
ruled Pakistan from
1977
to
1988
. His rule over the country, which lasted eleven years, is the longest to date in thehistory of Pakistan. Appointed
Chief of Army Staff in 1976
, General Zia-ul-Haq came to powerafter he overthrew ruling
Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
, after widespread civil disorder, ina bloodless military
coup d'état
on
July 5, 1977
and imposed Martial Law. He assumed the postof 
President of Pakistan
in
1978
which he held till his death on August 17, 1988.His reign witnessed the enforcement of strict Islamic law within the country, the politicalstabilization of secession-threatening Balochistan following his setting-up of a separate militaryregime within the province, the passing of the controversial 8th Amendment into constitutionallaw, as well as the gradual privatization and subsequent rejuvenation of a previously decliningeconomy. On April 4, 1979, the former Prime Minister
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
was
hanged
, after theSupreme Court upheld the death sentence as passed by the Lahore High Court. The High Courthad given him the death sentence on charges of the murder of the father of Ahmed RazaKasuri, a dissident PPP politician. Despite many clemency appeals from foreign leadersrequesting Zia to commute Bhutto's death sentence, Zia dismissed the appeals as "trade unionactivity" and upheld the death sentence.Having become President in 1978, he secured his position as head of state through areferendum in 1984 which successfully ensured his rule as President for another five years. Helifted Martial Law and held party less elections in 1985, and handpicked Muhammad KhanJunejo to be the Prime Minister of Pakistan. He dismissed Junejo's government in May 1988 onseveral charges. He was assassinated in a planned
aircraft crash
on August 17, 1988 undermysterious circumstances, and the perpetrators of the highly sophisticated air sabotage havenot been proven. His death ended his unprecedentedly long eleven-year military dictatorshipover Pakistan. He also fought a war by proxy in Afghanistan, aiding the Mujahidin against thesuperpower Soviet Union, in the Soviet-Afghan War. Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and the end of Détente, he was instrumental in providing United States-backed military aid to the Afghan resistance against Soviet occupation and then later divertingthem to the Kashmir cause in the late 1980s. His major contributions to the Mujahedeen greatlyaided them in inducing a complete Soviet withdrawal by
1988
.
 
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conflicting findings about the influence of each of these variables in different contexts. In hisera there was complete opposite change of social climate in the country. Moreover theconstitution and laws were amended as per the rules and teachings of Islam. In
1985
imposedMartial law and forced ban on political parties was lifted. General elections held under militaryrule. Again socio-political Controversial eighth Amendment was passed. Military Chief Zia-ulHaq resigned from Prime Minister Post and
Mohammad Khan Junejo
of Muslim Leaguebecame twelfth prime minister of Pakistan.His reign also witnessed the rise to prominence of several conservative politicians who wouldlater rule the country, including Nawaz Sharif, Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain, and Zafarullah KhanJamali (all of whom would later hold the post of Prime Minister of Pakistan). General Zia alsorevived and endorsed Pakistan's current ruling political party, Pakistan Muslim League. By 2002,the party broke into several splinter factions, the majority of which became structurally unitedagain in 2003 under Pakistan Muslim League (Q), including Pakistan Muslim League (Z), whichwas named after Zia.Five variables stand out in this scenario and related policy discussions are
(1)
 
Religiosity:
Religious people expected to be less supportive of destructive political attitudes in general but more supportive of groupsusing religious justifications for violence.
(2)
 
Education:
More educated individuals hypothesized to be more tolerant andtherefore less supportive of groups employing violent tactics.
(3)
 
Income:
Poorer people expected to be more supportive of violent politics or morelikely to participate in violent groups. Moreover poverty predicts supportfor violent political organizations is widespread in the policy literature.
(4)
 
Democratic values:
Valuing democracy expected to be less supportive of militant groups.
(5)
 
Anti-Americanism:
People holding negative views of the United States hypothesized to bemore supportive of certain forms of violence.Given the manifest importance of the political violence and lack of clarity in the politicalhistory the scenario is still vague. In
 
1999
Gen. and President Musharaf 
imposed

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