according to the levels of formality (Holmes, 2001:246). This is in accordance withMartin Joos (1967) in his book The Five Clocks as quoted by Nababan (1986:22) whodivides the style of formality into five levels, frozen, formal, consultative, casual andintimate styles. The description of these styles can be seen in the following:
It is the most formal style used in formal situations and ceremonies(Nababan, 1986:22). It is called frozen because the pattern has been set up firmlyand can never be changed by anyone. In written form, we can see this style inhistorical documents, ratification, and other formal documents.
It is the style used in formal speech, formal meeting, officecorrespendence, lesson books for school, etc (Chaer & Agustina, 1995:93). Formalstyle is basically similar to the frozen style that is only used in formal situationsand not in informal situations. The example of formal style as quoted by Marjohan(1988:35) from Nababan (1987) is the first paragraph of the opening of the 1945constitution of the Republic of Indonesia that was written in a formal or even in afrozen style,Bahwa sesungguhnya kemerdekaan itu ialah hak segala bangsa danoleh sebab itu maka penjajahan di atas dunia harus dihapuskan
karena tidak sesuai dengan peri kemanusiaan dan peri keadilan…
This is the style used in ordinary conversation held at school,in meeting or conversation that leads to result and production (Nababan, 1986:22).It can be said that this style is the most operational one.
It is the style used to speak with friends, family or relatives, duringthe leisure time, while exercising, etc (Chaer & Agustina, 1995:93). The casual
style markers in English mentioned in Marjohan’s book (1988:35) are:
1. The absence of an article at the beginning of a sentence, for example:a)
Friend of mine saw it.b)
cold.2. The absence of the subject at the beginning of a sentence, for example:a)
Bought it yesterday?b)
Makes no difference.3. The absence of an auxiliary, for example:a)
Seen John lately?