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Fuzzy Model for Quantifying Usability of Object Oriented Software System

Fuzzy Model for Quantifying Usability of Object Oriented Software System

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Published by ijcsis
The demand for quality oriented software system is increasing day by day. Usability is considered as a significant quality factor for successful software system. These days mostly software systems are developed using object-oriented technique. Object-oriented approach enhances the usability of software system when software engineering is combined with usability engineering. Inspite of such significant importance of usability there is no well defined criteria to quantify usability. This paper proposes a fuzzy model to measure usability of an object-oriented software system. The model takes a project, developed in java and quantifies its usability. The obtained value is validated by using AHP technique.
The demand for quality oriented software system is increasing day by day. Usability is considered as a significant quality factor for successful software system. These days mostly software systems are developed using object-oriented technique. Object-oriented approach enhances the usability of software system when software engineering is combined with usability engineering. Inspite of such significant importance of usability there is no well defined criteria to quantify usability. This paper proposes a fuzzy model to measure usability of an object-oriented software system. The model takes a project, developed in java and quantifies its usability. The obtained value is validated by using AHP technique.

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Published by: ijcsis on May 17, 2012
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 4, 2012
Fuzzy Model for Quantifying Usability of ObjectOriented Software System
Sanjay Kumar Dubey, Mridu and Prof. (Dr.) Ajay Rana
Computer Science and Engineering DepartmentAmity School of Engineering and TechnologyAmity University, NOIDA, (U.P.), Indiaskdubey1@amity.edu, mrids_11@yahoo.com and ajay_rana@amity.edu
 Abstract 
— The demand for quality oriented software system isincreasing day by day. Usability is considered as a significantquality factor for successful software system. These days mostlysoftware systems are developed using object-oriented technique.Object-oriented approach enhances the usability of softwaresystem when software engineering is combined with usabilityengineering. Inspite of such significant importance of usabilitythere is no well defined criteria to quantify usability. This paperproposes a fuzzy model to measure usability of an object-orientedsoftware system. The model takes a project, developed in javaand quantifies its usability. The obtained value is validated byusing AHP technique.
 Keywords- usability, fuzzy, metrics, object-oriented system,model,AHP.
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
Usability is essential for quality assessment of a softwaresystem. These days demand is increasing for object orientedtechniques because they form efficient software system. Henceif usability of an efficient system like object oriented softwareis evaluated then it would be easier to develop morequalitative software products.The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers [11]defines usability as “the ease with which a user can learn tooperate, prepare inputs for and interpret outputs of a system or a component”. According to ISO 9241-11 [12] usability isdefined as “the extent to which a product can be used byspecified users to achieve specified context of use”.Subsequently, ISO/IEC 9126-1 [13] categorized usability a part stating internal and external software quality, defining itas “ the capability of the software product to be understood,learned, used and attractive to the user, when used under specified conditions”.Object-oriented programming (OOP) is the basic style of  programming that uses objects. Object can be defined as aset of functions and data structures. OOP controls thecomplexity of a system. Features of object oriented programming are modularity, data abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance. Modularity means that smallcomponents of a program can be executed separately.Encapsulation means combining the data members andfunctions together in one unit and abstraction means hidingunnecessary data and highlighting the important features.Polymorphism means to reuse a particular code many timesand Inheritance means an object can share its behavior to itschild i.e. child acquires the behavior of its parent class.
 
Software metric is a way of evaluating some factors thatare essential for software development. These software metricsare basically used to find about accurate attributes that arerequired for design implementation. As of now only fewobject-oriented metrics are available. Also, metrics designed previously for general system are not appropriate for objectoriented system [8, 9, 19]. Hence a new suite of metrics were built for an object oriented system [1, 2, 4, 5, 10]. The metricsthat are given by Chidamber and Kemerer (CK) is used mostlyfor object oriented design because their performance issuperior in comparison to other metrics that are defined.Hence CK metrics are used in this paper for usabilityevaluation of object-oriented system.
 
II.
 
F
ACTORS
A
FFECTING
U
SABILITY
 For calculating usability of an object oriented system fivefactors are taken –class, complexity, coupling, cohesion andinheritance. These factors are chosen since they are designcomplexity factors and affect usability of object-orienteddesign system.
 A.
 
Class
A class is a basic unit of OOP and it can be portrayed as aset of objects that includes same methods, attributes andrelationships.
 
 B.
 
Complexity
By software complexity we mean the difficulty to preserve,modify and comprehend the software.
 
C.
 
Coupling
Coupling means the interdependency between differentcomponents or functions. Coupling is the measure of interconnections among the modules in a software structure.
 D.
 
Cohesion
Cohesion is the degree of connectivity between theattributes of a class. If parts of a class are correlated then onlyit is cohesive. It should be hard to divide a cohesive class.
79http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 4, 2012
 E.
 
 Inheritance
Inheritance is defined as classes having same methods andoperations based on hierarchy. It is a mechanism whereby oneobject acquires the characteristics from one or more other objects.III.
 
M
ETRICS
U
SED FOR 
C
ALCULATING
A
BOVE
F
ACTORS
 We have used object-oriented metrics suite that was proposed by C
 
hidamber-Kemerer (CK) [4] for object oriented
 
software. Following are the metrics-
 A.
 
 Response for Class (RFC)
This metric is used to calculate response for class. It refersto the set of methods that can be accomplished in response for a message received by the object of that class [4]. If this set of methods is large then the complexity will also be more, henceusability measurement is inversely proportional to responsefor class [7].
 B.
 
Weighted Methods per Class (WMC)
This metric is used to calculate complexity of a class. Itrefers to the summation of complexities of methods defined ina class [14]. The more the system is complex the lesser is theusability [7].
C.
 
Coupling Between Objects (CBO)
It is the count of number of classes to which it is coupled.[16]. Hence this metric measures the value of coupling.Internal coupling increases the probability of occurrence of faults in class. Therefore usability measurement is inversely proportional to coupling [7].
 D.
 
 Lack of Cohesion Methods (LCOM)
This metric is used to calculate our next factor (cohesion).It is the difference between the number of method pairs nothaving instance variable in common and the number of method pairs having common variables [17]. Usabilitymeasurement is inversely proportional to this metric [7].
 E.
 
 Depth of Inheritance Tree (DIT)
This metric gives the value for inheritance. It states how manysuper-classes can affect the class [15]. In cases involvingmultiple inheritance, the DIT will be of maximum length fromnode to root of the tree [4]. If DIT is high then number of methods that a class will be expected to inherit will increaseand complexity will also increase. Hence usability is inversely proportional to DIT [7].IV.
 
F
UZZY
A
PPROACH
F
OR 
U
SABILITY
E
VALUATION
 
 A.
 
Proposed Model
There are various methods for usability measurement [6] but none of them was exact approach. Thus we propose afuzzy model approach for usability measurement of an objectoriented system.Fuzzy logic is a captivating field of research these days asit considers the fuzzy value instead of binary values. The benefit of using fuzzy logic is that the fuzzy logic models can be built even with little or no data. In this paper, we proposea fuzzy model to measure usability. Fuzzy logic is used because usability depends on various factors. These factorsare fuzzy in nature.
Figure 1. Block diagram of Fuzzy Model
 B.
 
Working of the model
In this model we have taken five inputs as class,complexity, coupling, cohesion and inheritance to provide acrisp value of usability using rule base. Fuzzy InferenceSystem (FIS) uses fuzzy logic to map the input to output.Mamdani fuzzy inference method is used.After the fuzzification process is completed, we take thefuzzy sets for output variable that requires defuzzification. For defuzzification the input will be a fuzzy set and output will bea singleton value. The centroid method which gives center of area under curve is most commonly used for defuzzification.There are many types of membership functions but for simplicity we have used triangular membership function.
Figure 2. Inputs and Outputs of Fuzzy Model
80http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 4, 2012
C.
 
 Membership Function for Inputs and Output 
For measuring usability of an object oriented system wehave considered five inputs- class, complexity, coupling,cohesion and inheritance. These are shown in figure 3, 4, 5, 6,7. We have taken three membership functions –low, mediumand high for each input. These inputs are taken on an intervalof [0,100].
Figure 3. Membership function for classFigure 4. Membership function for complexityFigure 5. Membership function for couplingFigure 6. Membership function for cohesionFigure 7. Membership function for inheritance
For the output (usability) we have taken five membershipfunctions –very low, low, medium, high and very high. Therange for this is also taken from [0,100]. This is shown in thefigure 8.
Figure 8. Membership function for usability
81http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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