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IPv6 Multicast in VANET

IPv6 Multicast in VANET

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Published by ijcsis
VANET is the Mobile ad-hoc network, to provide communications among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed equipment, usually described as roadside equipment. VANET turns every participating car into a wireless router or node, allowing cars approximately 100 to 300 meters of each other to connect and, in turn, create a network with a wide range. As cars fall out of the signal range and drop out of the network, other cars can join in, connecting vehicles to one another so that a mobile Internet is created. IPv6 support is needed in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) with geographical routing. Basic IPv6 protocols such as address auto-configuration assume multicast capable link. In this we take the geographical information of each car which is in defined Geographical area through the GPS system, and also capturing the graph of all the car in the network through Google Mapit is presented in the paper, which aims at combining IPv6 networking and C2CNet..
VANET is the Mobile ad-hoc network, to provide communications among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed equipment, usually described as roadside equipment. VANET turns every participating car into a wireless router or node, allowing cars approximately 100 to 300 meters of each other to connect and, in turn, create a network with a wide range. As cars fall out of the signal range and drop out of the network, other cars can join in, connecting vehicles to one another so that a mobile Internet is created. IPv6 support is needed in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) with geographical routing. Basic IPv6 protocols such as address auto-configuration assume multicast capable link. In this we take the geographical information of each car which is in defined Geographical area through the GPS system, and also capturing the graph of all the car in the network through Google Mapit is presented in the paper, which aims at combining IPv6 networking and C2CNet..

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Published by: ijcsis on May 17, 2012
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IPv6 Multicast in VANET
Prof. Uma Nagaraj
Department of Computer EngineeringM.A.E Alandi (D)Pune Indiaumanagaraj67@gmail.com 
Ms. Deesha G. Deotale
Department of Computer EngineeringM.A.E Alandi (D)Pune, Indiadisha.deotale21@gmail.com 
 Abstract--
VANET is the Mobile ad-hoc network, to providecommunications among nearby vehicles and between vehicles andnearby fixed equipment, usually described as roadsideequipment. VANET turns every participating car into a wirelessrouter or node, allowing cars approximately 100 to 300 meters of each other to connect and, in turn, create a network with a widerange. As cars fall out of the signal range and drop out of thenetwork, other cars can join in, connecting vehicles to oneanother so that a mobile Internet is created. IPv6 support isneeded in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) with geographicalrouting. Basic IPv6 protocols such as address auto-configurationassume multicast capable link. In this we take the geographicalinformation of each car which is in defined Geographical areathrough the GPS system, and also capturing the graph of all thecar in the network through Google Mapit is presented in thepaper, which aims at combining IPv6 networking and C2CNet..
 
.
 Keywords
 — 
VANET, IPv6, Multicasting V2V, C2C, Multicasing, Geonetworking.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 By now the rapid growth of the Internet and theimpending shortage of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses havebeen well documented. Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) isthe next-generation protocol developed by the InternetEngineering Task Force (IETF) to replace the currentaddressing scheme, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4).Vehicles are expected to exchange information beyond theirimmediate surroundings, with other vehicles and the roadinfrastructure. Nowadays, communications become essentialin the society. Everyone can get information anywhere, evenin mobility conditions. The vehicle is another place whereusers stay for long periods.These day Most of the time human spend in the vehicle.ITS are going to be more and more important technologies inour life, that enhance safety, driving efficiency and amusingby allowing various service such as fleet management,navigation, billing multimedia application and game. IPv6 isconsidered as the most appropriate technologies to supportcommunication in ITS thanks to its extended address space,embedded security, enhanced mobility support and ease of configuration. Future vehicles will embed a number of sensorsand other devices that could be IPv6 enabled[12] .In vehicular networks, vehicles equip with on board units(OBU) to enable the communication with other vehicles.Vehicle-to-vehicle ad hoc networks are multihopcommunication using geographic position, which has beeninvestigated on GeoNet Project [6]. On the other hand, road-side units (RSU) are installed around the road. IEEE802.11 isused to connect between OBUs, and between OBU and RSU.Application Unit (AU) is a portable or built-in device
connected temporarily or permanently to the vehicle’s OBU.
OBU also can be connected to the Internet with cellularnetworks, WiMAX, etc. These terminologies are proposed inCar2Car communication consortium (C2C-CC [13]).
For the VANET networks now a day’s support of IPv6 is
needed with the geographical routing. The present IPv6protocols (like auto configuration) assuming that they havingmulticast capable link. But, for VANET, the definition of link becomes ambiguous and it is difficult to support link-scopemulticast. Artificial emulation of multicast capable link likeEthernet is possible but may cause low efficiency and highcost. Hence the new way to efficiently run IPv6 over VANETis needed with minimal cost. we are presenting the newapproach for running the IPv6 in VANET for efficiency aswell as lower cost. Instead of emulation, we rely ongeonetworking specific features for IPv6 operation. Oursolutio
n exploits inherent location management’s functions to
efficiently perform fundamental IPv6 protocols, i.e. NeighborDiscovery and Stateless Address Auto configuration. This newproposed approach is implemented with C2C communicationconsortium as reference system and exploits its inherentfunctions in order to perform the IPv6 multicast operationswith link scope multicast. we have to first design C2Carchitecture with IPv6.The main objective is to combining IPv6 networking and Car-to-Car Communication
Consortium’s (C2C
-CC)GeoNetworking capabilities into a single protocol stack forIntelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). We see in thearchitecture what is IPv6 GeoNetworking: what functions areto be provided, under which conditions it shall operate (e.g.communication scenarios, communication environment withor without infrastructure support) and how it shall perform(e.g. scale to a large number of vehicles).The organization of this paper as follows: Section IIexplains Design Goal. Section III presents the short overviewof Methodology of communication between vehicles. SectionIV describes the Communication using IPv6 in C2CArchitechture. Section V explain IPv6 Multicast overviewand in Section VI explain communication flow example .Section VII conclusion of the paper.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 4, April 2012135http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
II.
 
D
ESIGN
G
OALS
The design goals which have led to the architecture themotivations behind IPv6 geonetworking, The type of applications to be supported i.e. safety, traffic efficiency andinfotainment, and deployment considerations i.e.in-vehiclenetworks, backward compatibility, security, scalability,performance, etc.The first design goal of the architecture is IPv6 support in thearchitecture shall combine the geonetworking with IPv6networking. This combination referred as IPv6 GeonetworkingThe second goal is communication end point in this thearchitecture support communication between two end points1) Vehical to Vehical(V2V), 2) road side end points i.e vehicalto infrastructure (V2I) and infrastructure to Vehical (I2V) or3) internet end points.Third goal of the architecture is Geographic data transmissionshall support data transmission from a vehicle node or aninfrastructure node toi)
 
another vehicle or infrastructure node in a certaingeographic position,ii)
 
a set of vehicles or infrastructure nodes in a certaingeographic zone oriii)
 
an arbitrary vehicle or infrastructure node in acertain geographic zone.The fourth goal is communication mode vehicle shall able toform self organized ad-hoc communication network withoutinfrastructure coordination or the network may or may not beconnected to the infrastructureThe fifth goal is destination set routing function efficientlysupport point-to- point ,point-to-multipoint communicationIn vehicle embedded IP nodes shall be accessible from theinternet and be able to communicate with any peer nodesattached to the internet.III.
 
M
ETHODOLOGY
The implementation of IPv6 geonetworking. On RSU, theC2CNet layer gets IPv6 unicast packets from AU1 throughtun0. By checking the IPv6 packet destination address, it looksup the routing table via Routing Netlink to obtain the IP nexthop. From the IP Next Hop, C2CNet gets the C2CNet ID of OBU2, which corresponds to the last 64bits in the IP NextHop address.
Figure 1 IPv6 over C2C Network 
Once the C2CNet ID of OBU2 is obtained, C2CNet generatesa new GeoUnicast packet and sends it to OBU2 with the IPv6packet attached as payload. The packet is transmitted to thenearest OBU to OBU2, i.e. OBU1 and there fromretransmitted up to OBU2. Once at OBU2, the GeoUnicastpacket is decoded and its payload (IPv6 packet) is delivered toAU2 through tun0. Overall process of IPv6 over C2CNet isillustrated in Figure 1. AU1 sends IPv6 packets to OBU1 thatis the default router of in-vehicle network. OBU1 receives thepackets on the ingress interface (eth0 in Figure 2) and removesMAC header of the packets. Then IP header and payload partare transmitted into the tun0 virtual interface by thepreconfigured rules of IP Filter 1. The C2CNet module readsthe data from tun0 and parses the information of the IP header.The destination IPv6 address is used to distinguishcommunication type whether unicast or multicast by the first 8bits which are correspondent to GeoUnicast andGeoBroadcast, respectively. In unicast case, the next hop IPv6address is resolved from the routing table via netlink library bythe destination IPv6 address. The last 64-bits of the next hopIPv6 address is correspondent to the destination C2CNet.ID. In multicast case, destination C2CNet information are pre-configured depending on the destination IPv6 address (i.e. if the destination address is link-local all node multicast address(ff02::1), the latitude and longitude are as well as those of OBU1 and the radius is 500 meter). The data with C2CNetheader, IPv6 header and payload are sent to LowerLayermodule via local UDP socket. LowerLayer module adds MACeader over C2CNet header and transmits the frame into theair.The intermediate node (OBU3) receives the frame and re-transmits the frame when C2CNet modules find that the frameshould be retransmitted to reach the destination with multihopmanner. Finally, OBU2 receives the frame and on the egressinterface. Then Lowerlayer module removes the MACheader.And C2CNet module finds that the destination of theC2CNet packet is OBU2. The IPv6 header and payload aresent to the tun0 virtual interface. The packet is routed to egressinterface (eth0). And AU2 receives the IPv6 packet that sentfrom AU1.IV.
 
C2C-CC
 
A
RCHITECTURE MODEL
 We consider the Car-to-Car Communication Consortium(C2C-CC) architecture as the reference of our work. The mainobjective of C2C-CC is to ensure car-to-car and multihopcommunication for both safety and non-safety applicationstaking into consideration both the availability and non-availability of the roadside infrastructure.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 4, April 2012136http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
C2C-CC is designing an original network protocol (C2C)tailored for vehicular environments and relying on positionbased routing. This protocol defines a separate the C2C headerwith a separate C2C identifier, tentatively 64-bit length,identifying C2C nodes. The C2C header is planned to carrythe source C2C identifier, the destination C2C identifier, thesource geographic location and the destination geographiclocation.Some applications are directly running over the C2C layer andsome are indirectly over IPv6. We focus on the second case.C2C-CC also requires IPv6 support for its system to run suchapplications as infotainment. This demands results inincluding an IPv6 stack in the main protocol architecture .
Figure 2 C2C-CC Architechture
The communication system components include the vehiclesub-system, the roadside sub-system, the central sub-systemi.e in charge of providing application and network services andother functions to vehicles and the roadside and the personalsubsystem i.e third parties located in the Internetcommunicating with ITS-dedicated components and typicallybelonging to the users, possibly portable and themselvesbrought into vehicles.IPv6 nodes located in any of these sub-systems or anywhere inthe Internet and communicating end-to-end using on one handIPv6 and on the other hand GeoNetworking capabilities. TheIPv6 entities involved in GeoNet communications are:1. IPv6 nodes located in the vehicle sub-system:
 
the IPv6Mobile Router (MR) and its attached IPv6 nodes (respectively,the On-Board Unit (OBU) and Application Units (AUs));2. IPv6 nodes located in the roadside sub-system:
 
the IPv6Access Router (AR) and its attached IPv6 nodes (respectivelythe Roadside Unit (RSU) and AUs);3.IPv6 nodes located in the Internet:
 
IPv6 nodes located inthe central or personal sub-systems or anywhere in the Internetand corresponding with vehicles and the roadside. Thesetypically include ITS-dedicated servers, the Home Agent,nodes hosting other networking functions (e.g. DNS) and otherthird parties.The architecture supports safety, non safety and infotainmenttypes of applications and considers communications involvingnodes located in the vehicle sub-system.
Infrastructure-less communications: between vehicles alonewithout infrastructure support;
Infrastructure-based communications: between vehicles androadside peers or Internet peers.The mode of communication could be either point-to-point(uncast or any cast), or point-to multipoint (multicast). Forboth modes, introduces a geographic range of communication(respectively GeoUnicast, GeoAnycast and GeoBroadcast).The geonetworking features are only implemented into themobile routers and access routers which are respectivelyreferred to as OBUs and RSUs. All of these systemcomponents are independent IPv6 networks linked over theInternet. OBUs and RSUs form a vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) cloud. Routing is performed using geonetworkingaddressing and routing. Among several options, it wasconcluded that IPv6's multicast capabilities would best fit theobjective of combining IPv6 and geonetworking into a singlecommunication architecture. IP multicast is used to efficientlypropagate data packets to a set of recipients .The principle of IP multicast is that only one copy of a given packet istransmitted on any given link, and only to the condition thatthere is are known destinations reachable through this link.V.
 
IP
V
6
 
M
ULTICAST
 Multicast mechanism is communication is one packet send to sset of receiver vehicle node in selected area. Source address issend to the multicast receiver known as listener .The sourceneeded the multicast destination address so that it can send toall the receiver at a time in selected area of the source location.So multicast listener protocol Discovery protocol(MLD) usedto manage the group membership on link . it provide separatebehavior for multicast address i.e. host or router to multicastpacket. Here we used the MLDv2 protocol ,it include thesource filtering mechanism which enable router or hosts.For the geographical IPv6 multicast addressing in VANET. Toanalyzing the first the probability to adapt IPv4 multicastaddress with the target area. The lower layer manage thegeographical area such as geo broadcast. The communicationis done one node to all nodes in the destination area is calledGeo-broadcast . The structure of the IPv6 Geo-broadcast .address in C2C network have total 128 bit long divided in tosix parts
Figure 3 structure of IPv6 multicast address using C2C Geo-broadcast
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 4, April 2012137http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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