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Introduction and
overview 1

1.1 Relativity as a coordinate symmetry

1.1.1 From Newtonian relativity to aether

1.1.2 Einsteinian relativity

1.1.3 Coordinate symmetry transformations

1.1.4 New kinematics and dynamics

1.2 GR as a gravitational ﬁeld theory

1.2.2 Geometry as gravity

1.2.3 Mathematical language of relativity

1.2.4 GR is the framework for cosmology

Review questions

2 Special relativity and
the ﬂat spacetime

2.1 Coordinate symmetries 14

2.1 Coordinate symmetries

2.1.1 Rotational symmetry

2.1.2 Newtonian physics and Galilean symmetry

2.1.3 Electrodynamics and Lorentz symmetry

2.1.4 Velocity addition rule amended

2.2 The new kinematics of space and time

2.2.1 Relativity of spatial equilocality

2.2.3 The invariant space–time interval

2.3 Geometric formulation of SR

2.3.1 General coordinates and the metric tensor

2.3.2 Derivation of Lorentz transformation

2.3.3 The spacetime diagram

2.3.4 Time-dilation and length contraction

3 The principle of
equivalence

3.1 Newtonian gravitation
potential—a review 38

3.1 Newtonian gravitation potential—a review

3.2 EP introduced

3.2.1 Inertial mass vs. gravitational mass

3.2.2 EP and its signiﬁcance

3.3 Implications of the strong EP

3.3.1 Gravitational redshift and time dilation

3.3.2 Light ray deﬂection calculated

3.3.4 Einstein’s inference of a curved spacetime

Metric description
of a curved space 4

4.1 Gaussian coordinates

4.2 Metric tensor

4.2.1 Geodesic as the shortest curve

4.2.2 Local Euclidean coordinates

4.3 Curvature

4.3.1 Gaussian curvature

4.3.2 Spaces with constant curvature

2D surfaces with constant curvature

GR as a geometric
theory of gravity - I 5

5.1 Geometry as gravity 71

5.1 Geometry as gravity

5.1.1 EP physics and a warped spacetime

5.1.2 Curved spacetime as gravitational ﬁeld

5.2 Geodesic equation as GR equation of motion

5.2.1 The Newtonian limit

5.2.2 Gravitational redshift revisited

5.3 The curvature of spacetime

5.3.1 Tidal force as the curvature of spacetime

5.3.2 The GR ﬁeld equation described

Spacetime outside
a spherical star 6

6.1 Description of Schwarzschild spacetime

6.1.1 Spherically symmetric metric tensor

6.1.2 Schwarzschild geometry

6.2 Gravitational lensing

6.2.1 Light ray deﬂection revisited

6.2.2 The lens equation

6.3 Precession of Mercury’s perihelion

6.4 Black holes

6.4.1 Singularities of the Schwarzschild metric

6.4.4 Orbit of an object around a black hole

6.4.5 Physical reality of black holes

Problems

The homogeneous and
isotropic universe 7

7.1 The cosmos observed

7.1.2 Cosmological redshift: Hubble’s law

7.1.3 Age of the universe

7.3.1 Proper distance in the RW geometry

7.3.2 Redshift and luminosity distance

8.1 Friedmann equations

8.1.1 The quasi-Newtonian interpretation

8.2 Time evolution of model universes

8.3 Big bang cosmology

8.3.2 Different thermal equilibrium stages

8.4 Primordial nucleosynthesis

8.5 Photon decoupling and the CMB

8.5.1 Universe became transparent to photons

8.5.2 The discovery of CMB radiation

8.5.4 CMB temperature ﬂuctuation

Inﬂation and the
accelerating universe 9

9.1 The cosmological constant

9.1.2 The static universe

9.2 The inﬂationary epoch

9.2.2 The inﬂation scenario

9.2.3 Inﬂation and the conditions it left behind

9.3 CMB anisotropy and evidence for k=0

9.4 The accelerating universe in the present epoch

9.4.1 Distant supernovae and the 1998 discovery

9.5 The concordant picture

Tensors in special
relativity 10

10.1 General coordinate
systems 197

10.1 General coordinate systems

10.2 Four-vectors in Minkowski spacetime

10.3 Manifestly covariant formalism for E&M

10.3.1 The electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor

10.3.2 Electric charge conservation

10.4 Energy–momentum tensors

Tensors in general
relativity 11

11.1 Derivatives in a curved
space 215

11.1 Derivatives in a curved space

11.1.1 General coordinate transformations

11.1.2 Covariant differentiation

11.1.3 Christoffel symbols and metric tensor

11.2 Parallel transport

11.3 Riemannian curvature tensor

GR as a geometric
theory of gravity - II 12

12.1 The principle of general
covariance 233

12.1 The principle of general covariance

12.2 Einstein ﬁeld equation

12.2.2 Newtonian limit of the Einstein equation

12.3 The Schwarzschild exterior solution

12.4 The Einstein equation for cosmology

12.4.2 Friedmann equations

13.1.2 The wave equation in the Lorentz gauge

13.2 Plane waves and the polarization tensor

13.3 Gravitational wave detection

13.3.2 Gravitational wave interferometers

13.4 Evidence for gravitational wave

13.4.2 Emission of gravitational radiation

13.4.3 Binary pulsar PSR 1913+16

Supplementary notes

A.1 The twin paradox
(Section 2.3.4) 271

A.1 The twin paradox (Section 2.3.4)

Answer keys to review
questions B

Solutions of selected
problems C

References

Bibliography

Index

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