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Table Of Contents

Introduction and overview 1
1.1 Relativity as a coordinate symmetry
1.1.1 From Newtonian relativity to aether
1.1.2 Einsteinian relativity
1.1.3 Coordinate symmetry transformations
1.1.4 New kinematics and dynamics
1.2 GR as a gravitational field theory
1.2.2 Geometry as gravity
1.2.3 Mathematical language of relativity
1.2.4 GR is the framework for cosmology
Review questions
2 Special relativity and the flat spacetime
2.1 Coordinate symmetries 14
2.1 Coordinate symmetries
2.1.1 Rotational symmetry
2.1.2 Newtonian physics and Galilean symmetry
2.1.3 Electrodynamics and Lorentz symmetry
2.1.4 Velocity addition rule amended
2.2 The new kinematics of space and time
2.2.1 Relativity of spatial equilocality
2.2.3 The invariant space–time interval
2.3 Geometric formulation of SR
2.3.1 General coordinates and the metric tensor
2.3.2 Derivation of Lorentz transformation
2.3.3 The spacetime diagram
2.3.4 Time-dilation and length contraction
3 The principle of equivalence
3.1 Newtonian gravitation potential—a review 38
3.1 Newtonian gravitation potential—a review
3.2 EP introduced
3.2.1 Inertial mass vs. gravitational mass
3.2.2 EP and its significance
3.3 Implications of the strong EP
3.3.1 Gravitational redshift and time dilation
3.3.2 Light ray deflection calculated
3.3.4 Einstein’s inference of a curved spacetime
Metric description of a curved space 4
4.1 Gaussian coordinates
4.2 Metric tensor
4.2.1 Geodesic as the shortest curve
4.2.2 Local Euclidean coordinates
4.3 Curvature
4.3.1 Gaussian curvature
4.3.2 Spaces with constant curvature
2D surfaces with constant curvature
GR as a geometric theory of gravity - I 5
5.1 Geometry as gravity 71
5.1 Geometry as gravity
5.1.1 EP physics and a warped spacetime
5.1.2 Curved spacetime as gravitational field
5.2 Geodesic equation as GR equation of motion
5.2.1 The Newtonian limit
5.2.2 Gravitational redshift revisited
5.3 The curvature of spacetime
5.3.1 Tidal force as the curvature of spacetime
5.3.2 The GR field equation described
Spacetime outside a spherical star 6
6.1 Description of Schwarzschild spacetime
6.1.1 Spherically symmetric metric tensor
6.1.2 Schwarzschild geometry
6.2 Gravitational lensing
6.2.1 Light ray deflection revisited
6.2.2 The lens equation
6.3 Precession of Mercury’s perihelion
6.4 Black holes
6.4.1 Singularities of the Schwarzschild metric
6.4.4 Orbit of an object around a black hole
6.4.5 Physical reality of black holes
The homogeneous and isotropic universe 7
7.1 The cosmos observed
7.1.2 Cosmological redshift: Hubble’s law
7.1.3 Age of the universe
7.3.1 Proper distance in the RW geometry
7.3.2 Redshift and luminosity distance
8.1 Friedmann equations
8.1.1 The quasi-Newtonian interpretation
8.2 Time evolution of model universes
8.3 Big bang cosmology
8.3.2 Different thermal equilibrium stages
8.4 Primordial nucleosynthesis
8.5 Photon decoupling and the CMB
8.5.1 Universe became transparent to photons
8.5.2 The discovery of CMB radiation
8.5.4 CMB temperature fluctuation
Inflation and the accelerating universe 9
9.1 The cosmological constant
9.1.2 The static universe
9.2 The inflationary epoch
9.2.2 The inflation scenario
9.2.3 Inflation and the conditions it left behind
9.3 CMB anisotropy and evidence for k=0
9.4 The accelerating universe in the present epoch
9.4.1 Distant supernovae and the 1998 discovery
9.5 The concordant picture
Tensors in special relativity 10
10.1 General coordinate systems 197
10.1 General coordinate systems
10.2 Four-vectors in Minkowski spacetime
10.3 Manifestly covariant formalism for E&M
10.3.1 The electromagnetic field tensor
10.3.2 Electric charge conservation
10.4 Energy–momentum tensors
Tensors in general relativity 11
11.1 Derivatives in a curved space 215
11.1 Derivatives in a curved space
11.1.1 General coordinate transformations
11.1.2 Covariant differentiation
11.1.3 Christoffel symbols and metric tensor
11.2 Parallel transport
11.3 Riemannian curvature tensor
GR as a geometric theory of gravity - II 12
12.1 The principle of general covariance 233
12.1 The principle of general covariance
12.2 Einstein field equation
12.2.2 Newtonian limit of the Einstein equation
12.3 The Schwarzschild exterior solution
12.4 The Einstein equation for cosmology
12.4.2 Friedmann equations
13.1.2 The wave equation in the Lorentz gauge
13.2 Plane waves and the polarization tensor
13.3 Gravitational wave detection
13.3.2 Gravitational wave interferometers
13.4 Evidence for gravitational wave
13.4.2 Emission of gravitational radiation
13.4.3 Binary pulsar PSR 1913+16
Supplementary notes
A.1 The twin paradox (Section 2.3.4) 271
A.1 The twin paradox (Section 2.3.4)
Answer keys to review questions B
Solutions of selected problems C
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Cheng - Relativity

Cheng - Relativity

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Published by Davide Visentin

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Published by: Davide Visentin on May 17, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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