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Climate change and unfavorable rice environments: overview of approaches to assess trends and future projections

Climate change and unfavorable rice environments: overview of approaches to assess trends and future projections

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Published by Ely de Leon

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Published by: Ely de Leon on May 17, 2012
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Climate change and unfavorable rice environments: overview of approaches to assess trends and future projections
 
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Climate change and unfavorable rice environments:overview of approaches to assess trends and futureprojections
Kay Sumfleth and Stephan M. Haefele The likely impacts of climate change on rice-based agroecosystems in Asia are uncertain, especially for rainfed rice systems in theunfavorable environments that are vulnerable to precipitation changes. Regional impacts of climate change are typically assessedquantitatively through spatially downscaling a global circulation model (GCM), but this approach is inherently biased through the GCMselected, which is typically not more than one. In this paper, we pursue a different approach that is based on an ensemble analysisof several GCMs. In the first section, the ensemble analysis is illustrated by using two rainfed rice environments (in eastern India andBangladesh) as examples. Although the different GCMs showed a similar overall trend of declining precipitation, major discrepancieshave occurred in seasonal aspects of climate change. The spatial downscaling of predicted changes in precipitation projected thatthe changes are varying throughout the months and regions, probably further increasing the severity and the areas already plaguedby floods and droughts. The second section of the paper assesses the potential and constraints of seasonal forecasting as a meansto alleviate losses in rice production. Drought is a major production constraint in rainfed rice, so that forecasts on drought occurrencecan be used to alleviate losses. In a broader sense, short-term and long-term climate projections could be a key for achieving rising productivity in unfavorable rice environments.
Climate change is arguably the most signi
cant global environ-mental threat of the 21st century (IPCC 2001). Climate changewill have many consequences, including changes in temperatureand precipitation regimes, increased year-to-year variability,as well as greater occurrence of extreme events. However, un-certainty is still high with respect to regional differences in thespeed and extent of changing patterns of rainfall and temperatureextremes or droughts. The impacts on rice-based agroecosystemsare even more uncertain, especially in unfavorable rice environ-ments highly exposed to direct and indirect consequences of climate change. In the regional context of Asia, unfavorablerice environments encompass large swaths of drought- andsubmergence-prone areas as well as salinity-affected areas inthe delta regions.The regional impacts of climate change are typicallyassessed quantitatively through spatially downscaled globalcirculation models (GCMs) that are coupled with crop or hy-drological/hydrodynamic models (Salathé 2005). This modelingapproach is characterized by considerable uncertainties. Modelcomparisons conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel onClimate Change (IPCC) clearly revealed disagreement betweenvarious GCMs and regional climate change impact assessments,so that reliance on a single GCM is inappropriate for a reli-able projection of climatic trends (IPCC 2007). Moreover, thisdownscaled information on regional climate impacts is largelymissing for rice-producing countries in Asia (Ashfaq et al 2009),whereas detailed information concerning long-term projectionsin terms of temperature as well as precipitation patterns, mon-soon onsets, and associated uncertainties would be crucial foradaptation strategies.A global climate or circulation model is a complex simu-lation model that uses mathematical (differential) equations torepresent the physical laws governing the interrelated behaviorof the atmosphere, oceans, sea-ice, and land surface, and theinterconnected physical processes that determine weather andclimate on a global scale. It simulates these processes on a gridthat divides the atmosphere, ocean layers, and soil layers intomore than a million three-dimensional boxes, globally. Recentsimulation studies of global climate models show reliable con-formity with measured mean temperature anomalies over thepast 150 years. The global climate models also simulate changesin greenhouse gas and aerosol content of the atmosphere withgood agreement of observed data under consideration of anthro-pogenic and natural forcing. The output of these global modelsis a presentation of daily as well as hourly weather patterns, andthe development of temperate and tropical weather structuresover time, respectively. As for the resolution of GCMs, one gridcell covers between 150 km × 150 km and 300 km × 300 km of Earth’s surface. The long-term average of daily weather patternsis simulated with plausibility by running the model for very longperiods of time (approximately 10,000 years), simulating theslow changes of past climate and then projecting them decades
 
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Sum
eth and
Haefele
or even centuries into the future. At present, 25 GCMs and 12climate change scenarios are freely available and publishedby the IPCC (see Table 1). These
climate change scenarios
 encompass reasonable assumptions of anticipated emissionsresulting from individual or organizational behavior. They havebeen grouped by the IPCC in so-called SRES (Special Report onEmissions Scenarios) emission families according to the fourthAssessment Report published by the IPCC. At the top end of the scenarios (mean increase of 5.8 °C), extreme growth in CO
2
 emissions is assumed, combined with very high sensitivity of climate to greenhouse gases, more than what is consistent withthe observed 20th-century warming. Likewise, scenarios atthe low end (mean increase of 1.8 °C) are probably unrealisticwithout signi
cant policy efforts (IPCC 2007).Analyzing global multimodel data sets or ensemble dataof projected patterns of precipitation and temperature changesshows clearly that an increase in the amount of precipitationis very likely in high latitudes, while decreases are likely inmost subtropical land regions, continuing observed patternsin recent trends. For regional agricultural impact assessmentsas well as hydrological impact assessments, the resolution of GCMs, however, is insuf 
cient. Practical approaches such asempirical statistical downscaling, stochastic weather genera-tors, and particularly dynamic regional climate models can bebasically applied to increase the spatial resolution of GCMs.Regional climate models (RCM) such as PRECIS—appliedby the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)—can de-liver high-resolution agro-meteorological data with horizontalresolutions of up to 25 km on a daily basis. On the other hand,simpler approaches such as empirical statistical downscalingare available. These methods use environmental correlations todisaggregate large climate variations into small-scale climatepatterns.This paper attempts to give a brief overview of differentapproaches to assess climate change, including their uncertain-ties. The paper has two parts, the presentations of (1) a GCM“ensemble analysis” through two case studies of rainfed riceenvironments and (2) seasonal forecasting as a tool for forecast-ing extreme climate events such as drought. Additionally, wediscuss some impacts of major climate change stresses, namely,drought, on crop production and show adaptation options as wellas options for raising productivity for unfavorable rice environ-ments under a changing climate.
 Table 1. Benchmark sites for irrigated (IR) and rainfed (RF) ricecrops.Benchmark siteFirst ricecropSecond ricecrop
Cuttack, eastern IndiaRF (May toOct.)RF (Dec. toMay)(20º16´N, 85º31´E)Rangpur, northwest BangladeshRF (June toNov.)IR (Feb. toJune)(25º45´N, 89º15´E)
Fig. 1. Spatial distribution of rainfed rice areas in South, Southeast,and East Asia on the basis of FAO and IIASA’s Global AgroecologicalZone Assessment (for a more detailed description, see Monfredaet al 2008). Table 2. General circulation models (GCM) used and their maincharacteristics.
 AcronymNameSourceResolutionBCCR-BCM 2.0Bergen ClimateModelNansenEnvironmentaland RemoteSensing Center,Norway 1.9º × 1.9ºCGCM3.1(T47)Coupled GlobalClimate ModelCanadianCentre for Cli-mate Modeling and Analysis,Canada~3.75º × 3.75ºCSIRO-Mk 3.5CSIRO Mark 3.0CSIRO Divisionof Marine and AtmosphericResearch, Australia~1.9º × 1.9º
Continued on page 7.
GCM ensemble analysis for assessing long-term trends
Materials and methods
Figure 1 shows the distribution of rainfed rice agriculture inSouth, Southeast, and East Asia (Monfreda et al 2008) and twobenchmark sites with irrigated (IR) and rainfed (RF) rice cropsare listed in Table 1. A projection of future climate, climatechange, and its impact on unfavorable rice environments wasconducted by using ensemble models, including all the globalclimate models listed in Table 2.The main focus for this paper is the analysis of tworainfed rice production sites (see Table 1) with different rawGCM outputs of the 1% to 2x scenario. This scenario re
ects atransient climate response to a 1% per year increase in CO
2
con-centration of the atmosphere. The CO
2
concentration increases(starting from 348 ppmv) with a 1% per year compound rate
 
Climate change and unfavorable rice environments: overview of approaches to assess trends and future projections
 
7
Fig. 2. Downscaled climate scenarios for January to December, basedon an ensemble of 20 weather forecasts provided by NCAR for Southand Southeast Asia.
until it reaches twice that value (696 ppmv) in the 70th year,and remains
xed at this plateau thereafter.We compiled region-speci
c records from major GCMs(see Table 2). For the baseline comparison—the juxtapositionof observed and simulated climate data in the period of 1960 to2000—we used CRU data. CRU data (Climate Research Data,www.cru.uea.ac.uk/) with time series of month-by-month varia-tions from 1960 to 2000 are high-resolution climate grids thatcan be taken as a reference for modeling studies. The displayedtime frame of this GCM analysis is 2011-30 and 2031-50. Al-though all climate models are calibrated with long time seriesand declared as valid, we show only the synthesized results of this analysis.We used the ensemble forecast approach because it seemsthe best method to re
ect the uncertainty ingrained in differentclimate scenarios as well as seasonal or short-term weatherforecasts. Figure 2 shows an ensemble of 20 weather forecastsprovided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research(NCAR) for South and Southeast Asia and for a time period of 16days. The resulting maps (Fig. 2) are preliminary estimates andit should be taken into account that developing seasonal weatherforecasting is an ongoing process with still large uncertainty.
Results
Considering the different ranges of resolution from ~1.1° ×1.1° up to ~2.8° × 2.8° and the related implications for differ-ent degrees of heterogeneity of underlying topography, as wellas the proportions of land and ocean, it is impossible to usethis projected climate information for sound location-speci
cagriculture adaptation options. For two rainfed environments,Cuttack (Orissa, India) and Rangpur (Rangpur District, Bangla-desh), we analyzed time series of precipitation and maximumand minimum temperature. Table 3 summarizes the
ndingson precipitation trends for 2011-30 based on the congruenceof these seven GCMs. This analysis of seasonal distribution of 
 AcronymNameSourceResolutionECHAM5/ MPI-OMEuropean Cen-tre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts,Hamburg Max-Planck Institute, Ger-many ~1.88º × 1.88ºGFDL-CM2.0GeophysicalFluid DynamicsLaboratory – Cli-mate ModelGeophysicalFluid DynamicsLaboratory, USA2.0º × 2.5ºMIROC3.2(hires)Model for Interdisciplinary Research onClimateCenter for Climate SystemResearch,Japan~1.1º × 1.1ºUKMO-HadGEM1Hadley CentreGlobal Environ-mental ModelHadley Centrefor ClimatePrediction andResearch, UK ~1.25º × 1.87º
Source: IPPC Data Distribution Center.
 Table 2 continued from page 6.
precipitation for seven GCMs shows the variability of meanmonthly precipitation amount between the different GCMs,which is simulated for annual quarters: Jan-Feb-Mar (I, JFM),Apr-May-Jun (II, AMJ), Jul-Aug-Sep (III, JAS), and Oct-Nov-Dec (IV, OND).The results show clearly that, for the regions of Cuttack and Rangpur, an agreement exists for a direction of change inthe quarters I, II, and III because all or most GCMs indicate lessrainfall in these months. Quarter IV (Oct-Nov-Dec) showed thehighest degree of dissimilarity between different GCMs, whicheffectively impedes any reliable projection. In a parallel exercise,we downscaled future projections and mapped the changes tothe observed baseline data on a subnational level. The resultsestimate that the mean monthly rainfall changes in the regionaldomains depending on the time of the year and location (Fig. 2).In South Asia (mainly eastern India and Bangladesh), reducedmonthly rainfalls are indicated before the rice season (February,March, April, May), in the middle of the rice season (August),

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