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Natural Gas a Viable Marine Fuel Thesis E Eastlack

Natural Gas a Viable Marine Fuel Thesis E Eastlack

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Published by: LakeMichiganFiles on May 17, 2012
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NATURAL
 
GAS:
 
 A
 
VIABLE 
 
MARINE 
 
FUEL
 
IN
 
THE 
 
US
 
by 
 
EASTLACK,
 
E.
 
Page
 
|
 
1
 
Natural Gas: A Viable Marine Fuel in the United States (EM680)byEdward J. EastlackUnited States Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, NY2011Submitted to the Department of Marine Engineering inPartial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree ofMasters of Science in Marine Engineeringat theUnited States Merchant Marine AcademyAugust 2011Author Note:
 
Correspondence considering this paper should be addressed to Edward James Eastlack,Marine Engineer,eeastlack@aol.com 
 
NATURAL
 
GAS:
 
 A
 
VIABLE 
 
MARINE 
 
FUEL
 
IN
 
THE 
 
US
 
by 
 
EASTLACK,
 
E.
 
Page
 
|
 
2
 
Natural Gas: A Viable Marine Fuel in the United States, a thesis prepared by Edward J.Eastlack in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Science in MarineEngineering, has been approved and accepted by:September 29, 2011Edward J. EastlackStudent/AuthorJose FemeniaU.S. Merchant Marine Academy, MME Program Director
 
NATURAL
 
GAS:
 
 A
 
VIABLE 
 
MARINE 
 
FUEL
 
IN
 
THE 
 
US
 
by 
 
EASTLACK,
 
E.
 
Page
 
|
 
3
 
TABLE OF CONTENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 5VITA 6ABSTRACT 7LIST OF TABLES 8LIST OF FIGURES 9INTRODUCTION 10AVAILABILITY SUPPLY CHAIN AND COST OF NATURAL GAS 12BUNKERING – WHAT IS NEEDED TO INITIATE LNG BUNKERINGINFRASTRUCTURE IN MAJOR U.S. PORTS15BUNKERING EQUIPMENT NEEDED TO FACILITATE LNG BUNKERING IN MAJORU.S. PORTS17INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 21MEDIUM SPEED (OTTO CYCLE) LEAN BURN NATURALGAS SPARK IGNITION23DUAL FUEL MEDIUM SPEED MARINE DIESEL ENGINES 24DUAL FUEL SLOW SPEED MARINE DIESEL ENGINES 27DUAL FUEL MARINE GAS TURBINES 31POTENTIAL MARINE SYSTEMS USING LNG FUEL 35ONBOARD GAS STORAGE, PREPARATION AND HANDLING EQUIPMENT 39EPA EMISSIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR MARINE DIESELS AND NORTHAMERICAN ECAs42GAS FUELED SHIPS AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS 44ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL ADVANTAGES OF GAS AS FUEL 47CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY GUIDANCE FOR GAS FUELED SHIP CONSTRUCTION 49

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