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Delivering Accurate and Timely Data to All

Delivering Accurate and Timely Data to All

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74
IEEE 
 power & energy magazine
may/june 2007
1540-7977/07/$25.00©2007 IEEE
 
may/june 2007
IEEE 
 power & energy magazine
75
S
SUBSTATION AUTOMATION ENABLES THE AVAILABILITY OF DATA FROM ALLsubstation devices to any client. The data may also be time tagged,or better yet,they may comefrom global positioning system (GPS)-synchronized equipment in which case it is possible to knowthe exact time at which they were collected with accuracy better than 1
μ
s. Yet the data are rawdata. They may be corrupted with calibration errors,random errors,instrumentation channel errors,statistical measurement errors,etc.,depending on the design and status of the device by which thedata were collected.Substation automation schemes should be concerned with the quality of the data. In general,the quality of the data can be characterized in terms of accuracy of value,accuracy of time stamp,and reliability. The reliability of data can be addressed on actual systems by counting the timesthat a device failed to provide data; for example,a phase measurement unit (PMU) losing syn-chronism with the GPS clock will not provide GPS synchronized data over this period. The accu-racy of the data values and the time-stamp values depend on the originating device. Any bad datacan be only identified by making use of redundant data; for example,if this particular datum valuehas been also measured at the same time by another device. Redundancy is the requirement foridentifying bad data.In a well-designed system with good-quality hardware,bad data may occur infrequently.What is more important is the fact that the available data originate from devices with varyingmeasurement accuracy. In an automated substation,any physical quantity may be availablefrom several data acquisition devices that may have different accuracy characteristics.The redundancy of available data points as compared to the unique physical quanti-ties that describe the operating condition of a substation is relatively very large;for example,in a typical automated substation the redundancy may be around3,000%. Then,the question becomes what is the best value that should beused for this quantity. Currently this issue is addressed through the tradi-tional state estimation at the system level at a smaller scale since stateestimation operates on supervisory control and data acquisition(SCADA) data,which is only a subset of available data in a substa-tion. Substation automation in the presence of GPS-synchronizeddevices opens the possibility of performing the state estimation atthe substation level in a manner that the results are globally validfor system-wide applications.We have developed the concept of the SuperCalibrator thatperforms this task. The SuperCalibrator can be viewed as a fil-ter of the available data on the data bus of a substation automa-tion scheme. The available data are three-phase data. TheSuperCalibrator is a model-based filtering scheme of this data.The model is a physical-based three-phase,breaker oriented,and instrumentation-inclusive model. The output of the Super-Calibrator is the state of the substation defined as the minimuminformation that defines the electrical state of the substation aswell as the corrected (filtered) data. The output data of the Super-Calibrator are useful for a number of advanced applications. Thisarticle discusses three such applications:alarm processing,sta-bility monitoring,and relaying monitoring and assessment.Because the SuperCalibrator relies on the existence of at leastone GPS-synchronized device in the substation,it is important toreview the technology versus the limitations of the application of the technology in a substation.
Impact of GPS Synchronization
The fulfillment of the promise of substation automation isdependent on,among other things,the accuracy of the time atwhich data were captured. Substation automation makes data
 © DIGITALVISION
 
available from various sources to all clients. The data consistof a value and a time stamp. Utilization of this data for clientapplications depends on the accuracy of the time stamp.Some applications require higher time accuracy than others.For example,if the application is to measure the phase angleof a voltage or current phasor with precision of 0.02 degrees,the required accuracy of the time stamp must be at least 1
μ
s(PMU measurement). In general,for any application,the higher the accuracy of the time stamp the better it is.Currently,the PMU technology (use of a GPS clock and spe-cially designed data acquisition systems that synchronize thedata acquisition with the GPS clock) provides the capabilityof time tagging the data with accuracy of about 1
μ
s. Werefer to this data as GPS-synchronized data or measure-ments. The value of GPS-synchronized measurements hasbeen recognized in many applications. The most obvious isthe need to know exactly when something happened to thesystem so that data from various geographical areas can becompared and utilized to reconstruct the systemresponse/behavior during a disturbance. This need becamevery obvious during the investigation of the August 2003blackout in the United States. This is only a small exampleof the need for GPS-synchronized measurements.The need for synchronized measurements has been evi-dent since the early days of electric power systems and itwas limited by the available clock technology. Specifically,for a geographically dispersed system such as the powergrid,synchronized measurements require an accurate clock that is available at any location of the grid. The higher theaccuracy of this clock the better it is. The deployment of theGPS provided such a clock with accuracy better than 1
μ
s(currently,the accuracy of the GPS clocks is much higher).Several efforts to use GPS clocks for development of GPS-synchronized measurements for power system applicationshave been reported. Sakis Meliopoulos,F. Zhang,and S.Zelingher reported in 1991 the time vernier method for time-tagging measurements obtained by a high-end fault recorderwith precision 2
μ
s (see the For Further Reading section).As a matter of fact,a prototype was constructed and tested.At the time this was the only available technology with accu-racy of 2
μ
s or better.In the period of 1990 to 1992,A. Phadke developed thePMS (phasor measurement system),which is illustrated inFigure 1. The PMS used a GPS signal for timing,a 720-samples-per-second sample-and-hold analog/digital converter,and a front-end antialising filter with a cutoff frequency of 360Hz. The combination of the antialiasing filter and the multi-plexing introduce time delays that are orders of magnitudegreater than the precision of the GPS clock. Although thisdevice was never tested by independent organizations,the esti-mated timing errors are more than 50
μ
s. Several PMSs wereconstructed and sold to several utilities. Despite the use of theGPS clock,the PMS was not capable of performing measure-ments with comparable precision to the GPS clock.The first device capable of performing synchronizedmeasurements with accuracy comparable to the GPS clock accuracy was developed by J. Murphy of Macrodyne and wasreleased in the market in January 1992. Murphy named thedevice the Macrodyne 1620 PMU. Macrodyne introduced thefollowing innovations to achieve the goal of performing syn-chronized measurements with accuracy comparable to theGPS clock:individual channel GPS synchronization,com-mon mode rejection filter with opti-cal isolation,very high cutoff frequency input analog filter,and16-bit A/D sigma/delta modulationconverter,one per channel (i.e.,nomultiplexing). The block diagram of the Macrodyne 1620 PMU is illus-trated in Figure 2.The authors conducted tests onthis unit in late 1992 and deter-mined that the accuracy of theMacrodyne PMU is better than 0.02degrees at 60 Hz (or,alternatively,the time accuracy is better than 1
μ
s) and 0.1% for the magnitude.Ten years after the introduction of the Macrodyne PMU several manu-facturers started implementing GPSsynchronization into existing or newproduct lines,including relays,faultrecorders,and meters. Most of therecently introduced GPS synchro-nized equipment (with some excep-tions) has similar performance
76
IEEE 
 power & energy magazine
may/june 2007
 figure 1.
Block diagram of Arun Phadke’s PMS. (a) Analog antialiazing input filterwith a cutoff frequency of 360 Hz. (b) 12-bit sample-and-hold A/D technology(720 samples per second with analog multiplexing).
16 ChannelAnalogInputS/HVMEVMECPUMotorola68020RS232TerminalRS232ProgramRS232RS232Host LinkRS232Time StampComm.Board1 HzTrigger720 HzTriggerA/DSignalCond.GPSSatelliteReceiverPhasorMeasurementSystemAntennaLocal

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