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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

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Published by: James Morton on May 18, 2012
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09/30/2014

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Ch.8LearningMyers6th.75
Q
1.Whichofthefollowingstatementsconcerningreinforcementiscorrect?a)Learningismostrapidwithintermittentreinforcement,butcontinuousreinforcementproducesthegreatestresistancetoextinction.b)Learningismostrapidwithcontinuousreinforcement,butintermittentreinforcementproducesthegreatestresistancetoextinction.c)Learningisfastestandresistancetoextinctionisgreatestaftercontinuousreinforcement.d)Learningisfastestandresistancetoextinctionisgreatestfollowingintermittentreinforcement.2.Youareexpectinganimportantletterinthemail.Astheregulardeliverytimeapproachesyouglancemoreandmorefrequentlyoutthewindow,searchingforthelettercarrier.Yourbehaviorinthissituationtypifiesthatassociatedwithwhichscheduleofreinforcement?a)fixed-ratiob)variable-ratioc)fixed-intervald)variable-interval3.Apigeoncaneasilybetaughttoflapitswingsinordertoavoidshockbutnotforfoodreinforcement.Accordingtothetext,thisismostlikelysobecause:a)pigeonsarebiologicallypredisposedtoflaptheirwingsinordertoescapeaversiveeventsandtousetheirbeakstoobtainfood.b)shockisamoremotivatingstimulusforbirdsthanfoodis.c)hungryanimalshavedifficultydelayingtheireatinglongenoughtolearnANYnewskill.d)ofalloftheabovereasons.4.WatsonandRayner'sstudyofLittleAlbertdemonstratedhowspecificfears:a)caninterferewiththeprocessoflearning.b)canbeusedasnegativereinforcers.c)areacquiredthroughobservationallearning.
'it)
maybeproducedthroughclassicalconditioning.5.Pavlovattachedminiaturevibratorstovariouspartsofadog'sbodyinordertodemonstratetheprocess
of:
a)spontaneousrecovery.b)continuousreinforcement.c)latentlearning.6.JohnB.Watsonconsideredhimselftobea(n):a)physiologicalpsychologist.b)cognitivepsychologist.c)behaviorist.7.InPavlov'sexperiments,thedog'ssalivationtriggeredbythesoundofthetonewasa(n):a)conditionedresponse.c)unconditionedresponse.b)unconditionedstimulus.d)conditionedstimulus.8.InPavlov'sexperiments,thedog'ssalivationtriggeredbythetasteoffoodwasa(n):a)conditionedresponse.c)unconditionedstimulus.b)unconditionedresponse.d)conditionedstimulus.9.Thefactthatlearningcanoccurwithoutreinforcementismostclearlydemonstratedbystudiesof:a)shaping.b)latentlearning.c)spontaneousrecovery.d)computer-assistedinstruction.10.Kathleendevelopedanintensefearofflying5yearsagowhenshewasinaplanecrash.Thefactthattodayshecanagainflywithoutdistressindicatesthatherfearhasundergone:a)spontaneousrecovery.b)extinction.c)generalization.d)discrimination.d)generalization.e)habituation.d)psychoanalyst.e)operantconditioner.
 
11.ForVina,cigarettesreducefeelingsoftensionandanxiety.Becauseofherheavysmoking,however,shehasabadmorningcoughandbreathingdifficulties.HowcantheprinciplesofoperantconditioninghelptoexplainthedevelopmentandcontinuationofVina'sself-defeatingsmokinghabit?ExplaintheextenttowhichthereinforcementforVina'shabitispositiveornegative,primaryorconditioned,immediateordelayed,partialorcontinuous.
12.7.
InPavlov'soriginalexperimentwithdogs,salivationtomeatwasthe:
a)
es.
b)
eR.
c)
ues.
d)Uf'R,
13.
Aspeoplenearthecompletionofalucrativetask,theytypicallybecomeincreasinglylesslikelytogiveupanddiscontinuetheirwork.Thisbestillustratesthatoperantbehaviorismosteffectivelyinfluencedbyreinforcers.
----
a)primaryb)negativec)immediated)partial14.Lastyear,Dr.FrautschicleanedNancy'sskinwithrubbingalcoholpriortoadministeringeachofaseriesofpainfulrabiesvaccinationshots.WhichofthefollowingprocessesaccountsforthefactthatNancycurrentlybecomesfearfuleverytimeshesmellsrubbingalcohol?a)observationallearningd)operantconditioningb)classicalconditioninge)latentlearningc)theoverjustificationeffect15.Apersonadheringtothecognitiveperspectivewouldbelikelytoemphasizethatclassicalconditioning/dependson:a)anorganism'sactivebehavioralresponsestoenvironmentalstimulation.b)
the
amountoftimebetweenthepresentationofthe
es
andthe
ues.
c)howfrequentlyanorganismisexposedtoanassociationofaCsand
a-Uf'S.
d)anorganism'sexpectationthata
ues
willfollowa
es.
16.Asachild,youwereplayingintheyardonedayWhenaneighbor'Scatwanderedover.Yourmother(whohasaterriblefearofanimals)screamedandsnatchedyouintoherarms.Herbehaviorcausedyoutocry.Younowhaveafearofcats.IdentifytheUCS.a)yourmother'sbehaviorb)yourcryingc)thecatd)yourfeartoday17.OnthefirstdayofclassProfessorWallacetellshergeographystudentsthatpopquizzeswillbegivenatunpredictabletimesthroughoutthesemester.Clearly,studyingforProfessorWallace'ssurprisequizzeswillbereinforcedonaschedule.a)fixed-intervalb)fixed-ratioc)variable-intervald)variable-ratio18.(a)Severaldaysafterdrinkinganexcessiveamountofalcohol,Karenbecomesnauseatedsimplybythesmellofliquor.Thesightofthehalf-emptyliquorbottlefromwhichshedrankdoesnot,however,upsether.WhatdoesKaren'spatternofresponseindicateaboutthelimitsofassociativelearning?(b)IfGeorgeisspankedimmediatelyafterhisbabysistercries,heislikelytobecomefearfuleverytimeshecries.IfKenisspankedimmediatelybeforehisbabysistercries,heisnotlikelytobecomefearfulwhenshecries.WhatdothedifferentreactionsofGeorgeandKensuggestabouttheroleofcognitiveprocessesinassociativelearning?19.John
B.
Watsonwouldhaveexpressedthegreatestdisapprovalofattemptstoscientificallystudywhether:a)consumerbuyinghabitsareinfluencedbynew~paperadvertisements.b)workerproductivityisinfluencedbyhourlywagerates.c)academicachievementisinfluencedbyapositiveself-concept.d)aggressivebehaviorisinfluencedbythreatsofpunishment.20.BecauseMr.Barondemonstratesappreciationonlyforclassroomperformancethatisflawless,hisstudentshavebecomepoorandunmotivatedlearners.
Mr.
Baronmostclearlyneedstobeinformedofthevalueofa)generalization.b)modeling.c)shaping.d)latentlearning.e)spontaneousrecovery.
 
21.Fishingisreinforcedaccordingtowhichschedule?a)fixed-intervalb)fixed-ratioc)variable-intervald)variable-ratio22.Thetasteoffoodandtheterminationofpainfulelectricshockarebothreinforcers.a)positiveb)negativec)primaryd)conditioned23.Researchersconditionaflatwormtocontractitsbodytoalightbyrepeatedlypairingthelightwithelectricshock.Thestageinwhichtheflatworm'scontractionresponsetolightisestablishedandgraduallystrengthenediscalled:a)shaping.b)acquisition.c)generalization.d)spontaneousrecovery.e)latentlearning.
24.
Asachild,youwereplayingintheyardonedaywhenaneighbor'Scatwanderedover.Yourmother(whohasaterriblefearofanimals)screamedandsnatchedyouintoherarms.Herbehaviorcausedyoutocry.Younowhaveafearofcats.
Identify
theCR.a)yourmother'sbehaviorb)yourcryingc)thecatd)yourfeartoday
25.
Theremovalofelectricshockistogoodgradesasisto_a)delayedreinforcer;immediatereinforcerb)primaryreinforcer;conditionedreinforcerc)discrimination;generalizationd)partialreinforcement;continuousreinforcemente)operantconditioning;classicalconditioning26.Rhesusmacaquemonkeysaremorelikelytoreconcileafterafightiftheygrowupwithforgivingolderstumptailmacaquemonkeys.Thisbestillustratestheimpactof:a)immediatereinforcement.d)respondentbehavior.b)spontaneousrecovery.e)shaping.c)observationallearning.27.
A
stimulusthatacquiresreinforcingpowerby
association
withanotherreinforceriscalleda_reinforcer.a)negativeb)primaryc)partiald)conditionede)positive28.B.F.Skinner'scriticshaveclaimedthatheneglectedtheimportanceoftheindividual's:a)personalfreedom.c)pleasure-seekingtendencies.b)earlychildhoodexperiences.d)culturalbackground.
29.
Twoyearsago,thedeCastellaneManufacturingCompanyincludeditsemployeesinaprofit-sharingplaninwhichworkersreceivesemi-annualpaybonusesbasedonthecompany'sprofits.Sincethisplanwasinitiated,workerproductivityatdeCastellanehasnearlydoubled.Thisproductivityincreaseisbestexplainedintermsof:a)observationallearning.d)classicalconditioning.b)latentlearning.e)spontaneousrecovery.c)operantconditioning.30.Spontaneousrecoveryreferstothe:a)expressionoflearningthathadoccurredearlierbuthadnotbeenexpressedbecauseoflackofincentive.b)organism'stendencytorespondspontaneouslytostimulisimilartotheCSasthoughtheyweretheCS.c)returnofaresponseafterpunishmenthasbeenterminated.d)reappearance,afterarestperiod,ofanextinguishedconditionedresponse.

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