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Chapter 17

Chapter 17

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Published by James Morton

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Published by: James Morton on May 18, 2012
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04/08/2013

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Chapter17:StressandHealth(6thEd)75Q1.Homeopathyandacupressureareformsof:a)alternativemedicine.b)biofeedback.c)psychophysiologicalillness.2.Whichofthefollowingbestexplainswhystressheightensvulnerabilitytobacterialandviralinfections?a)Stresshormonesacceleratethe"hardening"ofthearteries.b)Stresshormonesfacilitatethedepositingofcholesterolandfataroundtheheart.c)Stresshormonessuppresstheproductionoflymphocytes.d)Stresshormonestriggerreleaseofdigestiveacids.3.Thelevelofserotonininthebrainisbyadiethighin_a)increased;carbohydratesb)decreased;saltc)increased;proteind)decreased;sugar4.Thebestwaytoincreasetheproductionofserotoninisto:a)avoidhigh-carbohydratefoods.c)engageinaerobicexercise.b)makeuseofbiofeedback.d)receivetraininginmeditation.5.Whichofthefollowingwasofferedinthetextasareasonpeoplecontinuetosmoke?a)Socialpressurefrompeersisstrong.b)Cigarettesserveaspowerfulreinforcers.c)Regularuseofnicotineimpairsthebrain'sabilitytoproduceneurotransmitterssuchasserotonin.d)Mostadultswhosmokedon'treallywanttoquit.6.ResearchersFriedmanandRosenmanrefertoindividualswhoareverytime-conscious,supermotivated,verballyaggressive,andeasilyangeredas:a)ulcer-pronepersonalities.b)cancer-pronepersonalities.c)Type
A.
d)TypeB.7.Philip'sphysicianprescribesastressmanagementprogramtohelpPhilipcontrolhisheadaches.ThephysicianhasapparentlydiagnosedPhilip'sconditionasaillness,ratherthanaphysicaldisorder.a)psychogenicb)hypochondriacc)psychophysiologicald)biofeedback8.Researchonobesityandweightcontrolindicatesthat:a)whenanobesepersonhaslostweight,adietandexerciseprogramarenolongernecessaryformaintainingthelowerweight.b)leantissueismaintainedbyfewercaloriesthanisfattissue.c)overweightpeopletypicallysufferfromalackofwillpowerandself-discipline.d)nomatterhowcarefullypeoplediet,theycanneverlosefatcells.9.Aclassmatearguesthat"thebestwaytohandlestressistoworkharderandmeetlife'schallengeshead-on."Evaluateboththestrengthsandtheweaknessesofyourclassmate'sposition.10.Wildanimalsplacedinzoossometimesdieshortlythereafter.Thesedeathsarelikelytoresultfroma(n)____intheanimals'productionof_a)decrease;lymphocytesb)increase;androgensc)decrease;cortisol11.Cigarettesmokingisassociatedwithaaddictionratethanforcocaineanda_addictionratethanforheroin:a)higher;lowerb)lower;higherc)higher;higherd)lower;lowerd)aerobicexercise.e)spontaneousremission.d)increase;steroidse)decrease;teratogens
 
20.12.Lymphocytesare:a)harmfulagentssuchaschemicalsandvirusesthatcrosstheplacentafrommothertofetus.b)stresshormonesproducedbythesympatheticnervoussystem.c)cancercellsthatforminthelymphglands.d)whitebloodcellsthatarepartofthebody'simmunesystem.13.Apsychophysiologicalillnessisa(n):a)physicalillnessthatproducesapsychologicaldisorder.b)illnessthatisnotcausedbyaphysicaldisorderbutinsteadseemslinkedtostress.c)diseaseofthecentralnervoussystem.d)physicalorpsychologicaldisorderthathasageneticcomponent.14.Conniecomplainstothecampuspsychologistthatshehastoomuchstressinherlife.Thepsychologisttellsherthatthelevelofstresspeopleexperiencedependsprimarilyon:a)howmanyactivitiestheyaretryingtodoatthesametime.b)howtheyappraisetheeventsoflife.c)theirphysicalhardiness.d)howpredictablestressfuleventsare.15.Bernardisanambitious,highlycompetitivecorporationlawyerwhorecentlyhadaheartattack.Hetendstobeimpatientandaperfectionist,andhegetsangryoverlittlethings.ResearchsuggeststhatBernard'ssusceptibilitytoheartattacksmaybemostcloselylinkedtohis:a)ambition.b)anger.c)impatience.d)perfectionism.e)competitiveness.16.ResearchonthesmokinghabitsofNorthAmericansindicatesthatsincethemid-1960s:a)smokinghasdecreasedmorerapidlyamongmenthanamongwomen.b)smokingismorecommonamongtherichthanamongthepoor.c)thepercentageofteenagesmokershasincreased.d)theoverallpercentageofNorthAmericansmokershasremainedverynearlythesame.17.Collegewomenwhohadbeensexuallyabusedaschildrenwereespeciallylikelytoreporthealthproblemsiftheyhad:a)grownupinasingle-parentfamily.b)kepttheabuseasecret.c)beenvictimizedbeforeage5.d)beenvictimizedbyastrangerratherthanbyacloserelative.18.Themacrophageandlymphocytesaremajoragentsofthe:a)sympatheticnervoussystem.d)parasympatheticnervoussystem.b)immunesystem.e)reticularsystem.c)limbicsystem.19."Burnout"referstothe:a)physical,emotional,andmentalexhaustionbroughtonbypersistentjob-relatedstress.b)formationofplaquesinthecoronaryarteries.c)tendencytorespondtostresswithanger.d)suppressionofimmuneresponses.Thefieldofhealthpsychologyisconcernedwith:a)thepreventionofillness.b)thepromotionofhealth.c)thetreatmentofillness.d)alloftheabove.
 
21.Andrew,whoisconvincedthatanexpensiveherbalremedy"cured"hisarthritis,hasdecidedtoturntohomeopathyandherbalmedicineforallofhishealthcare.Youcautionhimbypointingoutthat:a)arthritisisacyclicaldiseasethatoftenimprovesonitsown.b)botanicalherbshaveneverbeenproveneffectiveincontrolledexperiments.c)alternativemedicineisarecentfadinthiscountrythathasfewproponentsinotherpartsoftheworld.d)Alloftheabovearetrue.22.Themostrapidincreaseinnicotinetoleranceoccursamongsmokerswho:a)perceivealackofpersonalcontrolovertheirownlives.b)feelsickanddizzythefirsttimetheysmokeacigarette.c)engageinregularaerobicexercise.d)areTypeBpersonalities.23.TheleadingcauseofdeathinNorthAmericais:a)lungcancer.d)alcohol-relatedaccidents.b)AIDS.e)accidents.c)coronaryheartdisease.24.Benisaself-employedaccountantwhoworksovertimeduringthefirsttwoweeksofApriltofinishhisclients'taxformsbeforethefilingdeadline.Duringthistime,Benismostlikelytoshowa(n):a)elevatedbloodcholesterollevel.d)reductioninthereleaseofcortisol.b)reductioninthereleaseofepinephrine.e)proliferationoflymphocytes.c)elevatedbloodglucoselevel.25.ThedeadlyeffectsofAIDSmostclearlyresultfromadecreasedproductionof:a)epinephrine.b)acetylcholine.c)cortisol.d)lymphocytes.e)androgens.26.Youngteensaremostlikelytostartsmokinginorderto:a)facilitatetheirsocialacceptance.b)triggerthereleaseofendorphins.c)boosttheirmentalalertness.d)diminishtheirappetiteforcarbohydrates.e)relaxtheirmusclesandreducetheirbloodpressure.27.Confidingone'sfearsandfrustrationstosupportivefriendsislikelytolymphocytelevelsandcortisollevels.
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a)increase;increaseb)decrease;decreasec)increase;decreased)decrease;increase28.Comparedtotheircounterpartsof40yearsago,today'saverageAmericanwomanweighsandtoday'saverageMissAmericacontestantweighs_a)less;moreb)more;lessc)less;lessd)more;more29.Aerobicexercisehasbeencloselylinkedtoa(n):a)decreaseinlymphocyteproduction.c)increaseinbloodpressureinreactiontostress.b)decreaseindepression.d)decreaseintheproductionofendorphins.30.Concludingherpresentationonspiritualityandhealth,Majanotesthat:a)historically,religionandmedicinejoinedhandsincaringforthesick.b)mostAmericansbelievethatspiritualityandreligionarerelatedtohealth.c)peoplewhoattendreligiousservicesweeklyhavehealthierlife-styles.d)alloftheabovearetrue.31.Trevor,acollegestudent,hastriedtoquitsmokingontwodifferentoccasions.Ineachcase,however,herelapsedintohisoldhabitduringthelastfewweeksoftheschoolyear.ExplainthepossiblereasonsforthisrelapsepatternanddescribewhatTrevorcandotoavoidrepeatedfailureinhiseffortstostopsmoking.

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