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History of Botany

History of Botany

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Published by Jason Raquin Roque

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Published by: Jason Raquin Roque on May 19, 2012
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Roque, Jason R. Ms. Melanie MedecilloHUB 32 Botany LectureJune 16, 2011History of BotanyEarly:TheHistory of botanyhas started with ancient writings and classifications of plants. Suchwritings are found in several early cultures. Most of the early works for botany can be foundinAncient Indiansacred texts, ancientZoroastrianwritings, and Ancient Chinese works. (1) Several of the factual examples of ancient Indian regarding plant classification is found intheRigveda. This is a collection of Vedic Sanskrithymns that ranges to 3700–3100. The sacredHindutextAtharvavedadivides plants into eight classes: -
 
Visakha (spreading branches)-
 
Manjari (leaves with long clusters)-
 
Sthambini (bushy plants)-
 
Prastanavati (creeping plants)-
 
Amsumati (with many stalks)-
 
Kandini (plants with knotty joints.Meanwhile theTaittiriya Samhitaclassifies the plant kingdom into:-
 
Vrksa, Vana and Druma (trees)-
 
Visakha (shrubs with spreading branches)-
 
Sasa (herbs)-
 
Amsumali (spreading plant)-
 
Vratati (climber)-
 
Stambini (bushy plants)-
 
Pratanavati (creeper)-
 
Alasala (spreading on the ground)Other examples of early Indian taxonomy include Manusmriti, a Law book of Hindus,which classifies plants into eight major categories. (2) The Greco-Roman world also produced anumber of botanical works including the
and
.
Digitally signed by Jason RaquinRoqueDN: cn=Jason Raquin Roque, o,
 
ou, email=jason_mike15@yahoo.com, c=PHDate: 2012.05.15 13:58:31 +08'00'
 
Inancient China, lists of different plants and herb were found at least the time of theWarring States(481 BC-221 BC). Many Chinese writers over the centuries contributed to thewritten knowledge of herbal medicines and its help to the community. TheHan Dynasty(202BC-220 AD) does include the notable works of theHuangdi Neijingand the famouspharmacologistZhang Zhongjingin relation to plant pharmaceutics. There were also the 11thcentury scientists and statesmenSu SongandShen Kuowho compiled learned treatises on natural history, emphasizing herbal medicine. (3)Early Modern:The three founder of Botany areGermanphysicianLeonhart Fuchs(1501–1566) along withOtto Brunfels(1489-1534) andHieronymus Bock (1498–1554) (also called Hieronymus Tragus). (4) In the early part of 16th century,Ulisse Aldrovandian Italian Researcher wasscientifically researching plants. Using an early microscope in the year of 1667,RobertHookediscoveredcellsincork , and a short time later in living plant tissue. TheGermans Jacob Theodor KleinandLeonhart Fuchs, the SwissConrad von Gesner, and the British authorNicholas Culpepercontributed and published
 Herbals Covering the Medicinal Uses of Plants.
(5)During the 18th century, systems of classification became deliberately artificial andserved only for the purpose of identification. In the 18th century an increasing number of newplants had arrived in Europe, from newly discovered countries and the European coloniesworldwide, and a larger amount of plants became available for study until such time in 1754Carlvon Linné(Carl Linnaeus) divided the plant Kingdom into 25 classes which really contributed agreat impact and help to the arising knowledge about botany. (5) The division of the plantKingdom by Carl Linnaeus had increased knowledge on anatomy, morphology and life cycles,lead to the realization that there were more natural affinities between plants, than the sexualsystem of Linnaeus indicated. (5) Botany was greatly stimulated by the appearance of the first“modern” text book,Matthias Schleiden's Grundzuge der Wissenschaftlichen, published inEnglish in 1849 as
Principles of Scientific Botany
. (2)

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