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SPP1

SPP1

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Published by alpha007omega

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Published by: alpha007omega on May 19, 2012
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4/1/20121
Assembler Design Options
One-pass assemblers
Multi-pass assemblers
 Two-pass assembler with overlay structure
 Two-Pass Assembler with Overlay Structure
For small memory
»pass 1 and pass 2 are never required at the same time»three segments
root: driver program and shared tables andsubroutinespass 1pass 2
»tree structure»overlay program
 
4/1/20122
One-Pass Assemblers
Main problem
»forward references
data itemslabels on instructions
Solution
»data items: require all such areas be defined before they arereferenced»labels on instructions: no good solution
One-Pass Assemblers
Main Problem
»forward reference
data itemslabels on instructions
 Two types of one-pass assembler
»load-and-go
produces object code directly in memory forimmediate execution
»the other
produces usual kind of object code for laterexecution
 
4/1/20123
Load-and-go Assembler
Characteristics
»Useful for program development and testing»Avoids the overhead of writing the object program out andreading it back »Both one-pass and two-pass assemblers can be designed asload-and-go.»However one-pass also avoids the over head of an additionalpass over the source program»For a load-and-go assembler, the actual address must be knownat assembly time, we can use an absolute program
Forward Reference inOne-pass Assembler
For any symbol that has not yet been defined
1. omit the address translation2. insert the symbol into SYMTAB, and mark this symbol undefined3. the address that refers to the undefined symbol is added to a listof forward references associated with the symbol table entry4. when the definition for a symbol is encountered, the properaddress for the symbol is then inserted into any instructionsprevious generated according to the forward reference list

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