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# 2_2

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05/20/2012

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2 Principles of d.c. machines
D.C. machines are the electro mechanical energy converters which work from a d.c.source and generate mechanical power or convert mechanical power into a d.c. power. Thesemachines can be broadly classiﬁed into two types, on the basis of their magnetic structure.They are,1. Homopolar machines2. Heteropolar machines.These are discussed in sequence below.
2.1 Homopolar machines
Homopolar generators
Even though the magnetic poles occur in pairs, in a homopolar generator the conductorsare arranged in such a manner that they always move under one polarity. Either north poleor south pole could be used for this purpose. Since the conductor encounters the magneticﬂux of the same polarity every where it is called a homopolar generator. A cylindricallysymmetric geometry is chosen. The conductor can be situated on the surface of the rotorwith one slip-ring at each end of the conductor. A simple structure where there is onlyone cylindrical conductor with ring brushes situated at the ends is shown in Fig. 4. Theexcitation coil produces a ﬁeld which enters the inner member from outside all along theperiphery. The conductor thus sees only one pole polarity or the ﬂux directed in one sense.A steady voltage now appears across the brushes at any given speed of rotation. The polarityof the induced voltage can be reversed by reversing either the excitation or the direction of 10

BrushFieldcoil
Flux
+
ANSSN
+
ABB--
Figure 4: Homopolar Generator11

rotation but not both. The voltage induced would be very low but the currents of very largeamplitudes can be supplied by such machines. Such sources are used in some applicationslike pulse-current and MHD generators, liquid metal pumps or plasma rockets. The steadyﬁeld can also be produced using a permanent magnet of ring shape which is radially mag-netized. If higher voltages are required one is forced to connect many conductors in series.This series connection has to be done externally. Many conductors must be situated on therotating structure each connected to a pair of slip rings. However, this modiﬁcation intro-duces parasitic air-gaps and makes the mechanical structure very complex. The magnitudeof the induced emf in a conductor 10 cm long kept on a rotor of 10 cm radius rotating at3000 rpm, with the ﬁeld ﬂux density being 1 Tesla every where in the air gap, is given by
e
=
BL
= 1
0
.
1
2
π
0
.
1
300060= 3
.
14 voltThe voltage drops at the brushes become very signiﬁcant at this level bringing down theeﬃciency of power conversion. Even though homopolar machines are d.c. generators in astrict sense that they ’generate’ steady voltages, they are not quite useful for day to day use.A more practical converters can be found in the d.c. machine family called ”hetero-polar”machines.
2.2 Hetero-polar d.c. generators
In the case of a hetero-polar generator the induced emf in a conductor goes through acyclic change in voltage as it passes under north and south pole polarity alternately. Theinduced emf in the conductor therefore is not a constant but alternates in magnitude. For12