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Option E

Option E

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Published by Jessica Kunder
IB biology notes, option E, neurobiology, social behavior
IB biology notes, option E, neurobiology, social behavior

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Jessica Kunder on May 20, 2012
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Option EI. NeurobiologyA. Definitions
behavior 
: what an animal does and how it does it; pattern of responses in an animal
 
stimulus 
: a change in the environment
 
a. Internal (pain)
 
b. External (light, sound)
 
response 
: a change in an organism, produced by a stimulus
 
reflex 
: a rapid unconscious response
 
-ex. young rabbit touches a stinging nettle plantB. Reflex Arc1. Receptors: sensory cells or nerve endings2. Sensory Neurons: to receive messages across synapses from receptors and carry them to the CNS.3. Relay Neurons: to receive messages, across synapses, from sensory neurons, and pass them to motor neurons.4. Motor Neurons: to receive messages, across synapses, from relay neurons and carry them to effector.5. Effectors: carry out response after receiving message from motor neuron-ex. muscles contract
 
-ex. glands secreteC. Sequence of Events in Response to Pain
—“Coordination”
 1. Nerve endings (nocireceptors; nerve endings of sensory neurons) in the skin detect the pain.2. Synaptic Transmission: impulses travel to the ends of the sensory neurons and synapse with relay neurons.3. Relay neurons synapse with motor neurons that carry impulses to muscles.4. Messages are passed across synapses from motor neurons to muscle fibers, which contract.II. Perception of StimuliA. Types of Receptorsa. Mechanoreceptors- mechanical energy in the form of sound waves-ex. hair cells in cochlea; perceive movements b/c pressure/gravity
 
-ex. pressure receptor cells in the skinb. Chemoreceptors: perceive chemical substances dissolved in water-ex. receptor cells in tongue-ex. nerve endings in the nose (chemical substances as vapors)c. Thermoreceptors: perceive tempterature-ex. nerve endings in skin detect warm/coldd. Photoreceptors: detect electromagnetic radiation, usually in form of light-ex. rod/cone cells in eyeB. Visiona. Vertebrate Eye1. Structuresa. Eyelid- What:
 
accessory structure
 
includes conjuntiva
 
- Functions:
 
shade eyes during sleep
 
protect from excessive light and foreign objects
 
spread lubricating secretions over eyeballsb. Conjunctiva- What:
 
thin, protective mucous membranec. Cornea- What:
 
nonvascular
 
transparent
 
fibrous coat
 
covers iris
 
- Functions:
 
helps focus lightd. Pupil- What:
 
hole in center of irise. Lens- What:
 
nonvascular
 
transparent
 
- Functions:
 
 
 
fine-tunes focusing of light rays for clear visionf. Iris- What:
 
suspended between cornea and lens
 
attached to ciliary processes
 
circular and radial smooth muscle
 
- Functions:
 
regulate amount of light entering posterior cavity of eyeballg. Ciliary body- What:
includes ciliary muscle- Functions:
 
alters shape of lens for near/far vision
 
h. Aqueous humor- What:
 
watery fluid
 
- Functions:
 
nourishes lens and corneai. Vitreous humor- What:
 
jelly-like substance
 
contributes to intraocular pressure
 
embryonic
 
- Functions:
 
helps prevent eyeball from collapsing j. Sclera- What:
 
 
“white of the eye”
 
coat of dense connective tissue
 
covers all except cornea
 
- Functions:
 
1. gives shape
 
2. protects inner partsk. Retina- What:
 
3
rd
and inner coat of eye
 
beginning of visual pathway
 
1. Contains 120 million ROD cells
 
- more sensitive to light
 
- night vision
 
- no color
 
- shapes and movement
 
- wider field of view
 
- best in dim light
 
2. Contains 6 million CONE cells
 
- distinguish color (red, green, blue)
 
- high visual acuity
 
- 1 of 3 kinds of photopigments
 
consists of:
 
a. Pigment epithelium (nonvisual)
 
- sheet of melanin-containing epithelial cells that lies betweenchoroid and neural retina
 
- absorbs stray light rays
 
- prevents reflection and scattering of light within eyeball
 
b. Neural portion (visual)
 
- processes visual data before transmitting nerve impulses tothalamus, which then relays nerve impulses to primaryvisual cortex of cerebrum
 
- 3 layers:
 
1. Photoreceptor layer
 
transduce slight rays into receptorpotentials
 
synapses on bipolar cells
 
2. Bipolar cell layer
 
synapses on ganglion cells3. Ganglion cell layer
 
 
 
•send
s axons into optic nere
 
• horizontal cells/amacrine cells
 
- modifys signals
 
- helps with integration
 
l. Choroid- What:
 
posterior portion
 
lines most of internal surface of sclera
 
melanocytes
 
- Functions:
 
provides nutrients to retinam. Fovea- What:
 
small depression in center of retina
 
high density of cones
 
no rods
 
- Functions:
 
sharpest visionn. Optic nerve- What:
 
bundle of axons
 
- Functions
 
transmits nerve impulses from retina to braino. Blind spot- What:
 
small area of retina with openings through which fibers of neurons emerge asoptic nerve
 
no rods/cones
 
2. Visual pigments
•colored proteins that undergo structural changes upon light absorption
 
•bound to membrane protein
opsin
 
•in rods, combination is rhodopsin
 
•cones have photopsins—
different for R, B, G
 
•color blindness=absence of certain photopsins
 b. Other Types of Eyes
Planaria eye cup- small layer of epithelial cells- intensity and direction- allow to move away from predators-ex. flatworm
• Compound eye
 
- 1000 light detectors (ommatidia)
 
- good for motion
 
- image is mosaic of dots
 
- UV image possible
 
-ex. Black-eyed Susanc. Visual Processing1. Edge Enhancement
 
A. Explanation #1
 
intensity at a point is not simply result of single receptor, but result of group of receptorscalled receptive field
 
in the center of the receptive field, receptors act excitatory on resulting signal andreceptors in surrounding area act inhibitory on signal
 
B. Explanation #2
 
each ganglion cell is stimulated when light falls on a small circular area called receptivefield
 
there are 2 types of ganglion cells:
 
1. ganglion stimulated if light falls on center of receptive field, but stimulation isreduced if light ALSO falls on periphery
 
2. light falling on periphery of receptive field stimulates ganglion cell butstimulation reduced if light also falls on center
 
2, Contralateral processing
 
Optic chiasma: deduce distances/sizes
 
3. Convergence
 
Bipolar cells in retina combine impulses from groups of rod/cone cells and pass them on to ganglion cells
 
- neurons continue to thalamus where processing behins
 
- processed into to visual cortex; image formation
 
- 30% cerebral cortex in processing visionC. The Human Eara. Structures1. Outer Ear1. External Pinna: collects sound waves and channels them to tympanic membrane (eardrum)2. Auditory canal: collects sound waves and channels them to tympanic membrane (eardrum)2. Middle Ear3. Malleus (hammer)
•attached to eardrum
 4. Incus (anvil)5. Stapes (stirrup)
•attached to oval window
 6. Oval window
•beneath stapes
 
7. Round window8. Eustachian tube: connects with pharynx and equalizes pressure

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