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LED Slide Show

LED Slide Show

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11/17/2013

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1
Light Emitting Diodes and Solid-State Lighting
E. Fred Schubert 
Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems EngineeringDepartment of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180
one:-- ma:cuerrp.eu nerne:www.gmngoes.org
1of 164
Solid-state lighting
Inorganic devices:
Semiconductor plus phosphor illumination devicesAll-semiconductor-based illumination devices
Organic devices:
emaraesuccessesnow-powerevces(Active matrix OLED monitors, thin-film transistors, etc.)Substantial effort is underway to demonstrate high-power devicesAnticipated manufacturing cost and luminance of organic devices are
orders of magnitude 
different from inorganic devices
Comp. Semiconductors, 2006
Predicted growth of LED market
2of 164
 
2
OLED versus LED
LEDs
are
point
sourcesThey are
blindingly bright
Suitable for imaging-optics applications
OsramCorp.
OLEDs
are
area
sourcesThey do
do not blind
Suitable for large-area sources
OptoTechCorp.
Luminance of OLEDs: 10
2
 –10
4
cd/m
2
Luminance of LEDs: 10
6
 –10
7
cd/m
2
Luminance of OLEDs is about4 orders of magnitude lower
OLED manufacturing cost per unit area must be 10
4
u
lower
OLEDs
Low-cost reel-to-reel manufacturing
LEDs
Expensive epitaxial growth
3of 164
Quantification of solid-state lighting benefits
Energy benefits
22 % of electricity used for lightingLED-based lighting can be
20
u
more efficient thanincandescent and
5
u
more efficient than fluorescent lighting
Reduction of
CO
2
emissions, a
global warming gas
Reduction of
SO
2
emissions,
acid rain
Reduction of
Hg
emissions by coal-burning power plantsReduction of hazardous
Hg
in homes
Financial benefits
Electrical energy cost reduction, but also savings resulting fromless pollution, global warming
AntarcticaUnited States
HgCause: CO
2
Switzerland
CO
2
,SO
2
, NO
x
, Hg, U
Czech Republic
Cause: SO
2
Cause: Waste heatand acid rain
4of 164
 
3
Quantification of benefits
Global benefits enabled by solid-state lighting technology over period of10years. First numeric value in each box represents annual US value.
The USA uses about ¼ of world’s energy.
Savings under“11% scenario”
Reduction in total energy consumption43.01
u
10
18
J
u
11%
u
4
u
10 = =189.2
u
10
18
JReduction in electrical energy consumption457.8TWh
u
4
u
10 = =18,310TWh= 65.92
u
10
18
JFinancial savings45.78
u
10
9
$
u
4
u
10 = =1,831
u
10
9
$Reduction in CO
2
emission267.0Mt
u
4
u
10 =10.68 GtReduction of crude-oil consumption (1 barrel = 159liters)24.07
u
10
6
barrels
u
4
u
10 = =962.4
u
10
6
barrelsNumber of power plants not needed70
u
4 =280
(*)
1.0PWh=1000TWh=11.05PBtu=11.05quadrillionBtu“=”0.1731PgofC=173.1MtonsofC1kgofC“=[(12amu+2
u
16amu)/12amu]kgofCO
2
=3.667kgofCO
2
Schubert
et al 
.,
Reports on Progress in Physics 
69
, 3069 (2006)
5of 164
History of LEDs
Henry Joseph Round (1881 –1966)
1907: First observation of electroluminescence
1907: First LED
LED was made of SiC, carborundum, an abrasive material
Henry Joseph Round
6of 164

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