Structural Vortex Shedding Response Estimation Methodology and Finite Element Simulation
Vortex Shedding Induced Loads on Free Standing Structures
Author: I. Giosan, P.Eng.
Estimating the wind-induced response of structures is a main topic in the area of the windengineering research over the last 40 years .Analyses are usually carried out through theoretical formulations, numerical algorithms, windtunnel tests, full scale experiments and code provisions. A dominant property of modern windengineering is that accurate analyses of complex problems are seldom possible by using one of these methods and instead they require the joint application of different techniquesFor instance, wind tunnel and full-scale experiments frequently provide the input for theoretical solutions, numerical simulations and code provisions; theoretical and numericalmethods are often the bases for organizing developing and processing measurements. Thegrowing importance of wind effects on structures, joined with theoretical, computational andinstrumental advances, has given great impulse to these techniques; in the meanwhile, theevolution of each technique is linked and even more inspired by the growth of complimentarymethods.All these powerful analytical and simulation tools are required when investigating complexwind induced phenomena like vortex shedding.Vortex Shedding (Fig. I.1) is the instance where alternating low pressure zones (blue colors)are generated on the downwind side of the stack, as shown in this figure.Fig. I.1 Vortex Shedding phenomenon induced by wind flowing over a cylinder.These alternating low pressure zones cause the stack to move towards the low pressure zone,causing movement perpendicular to the direction of the wind. When the critical wind speed of the stack is reached, these forces can cause the stack to resonate where large forces anddeflections are experienced.
Every stack has a critical wind speed at which vortex shedding occurs.Vortex shedding can be observed also at larger scale as a meteorological phenomenon.In [Fig. I.2] is shown an image taken from space of the vortex shedding phenomenon behindthe island Juan Fernandez along the Chilean rim.