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Vortex Shedding

Vortex Shedding

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Published by: aishahrahman on May 21, 2012
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Structural Vortex Shedding Response Estimation Methodology and Finite Element Simulation
1
Vortex Shedding Induced Loads on Free Standing Structures
Author: I. Giosan, P.Eng.
Introduction
Estimating the wind-induced response of structures is a main topic in the area of the windengineering research over the last 40 years [1].Analyses are usually carried out through theoretical formulations, numerical algorithms, windtunnel tests, full scale experiments and code provisions. A dominant property of modern windengineering is that accurate analyses of complex problems are seldom possible by using one of these methods and instead they require the joint application of different techniquesFor instance, wind tunnel and full-scale experiments frequently provide the input for theoretical solutions, numerical simulations and code provisions; theoretical and numericalmethods are often the bases for organizing developing and processing measurements. Thegrowing importance of wind effects on structures, joined with theoretical, computational andinstrumental advances, has given great impulse to these techniques; in the meanwhile, theevolution of each technique is linked and even more inspired by the growth of complimentarymethods.All these powerful analytical and simulation tools are required when investigating complexwind induced phenomena like vortex shedding.Vortex Shedding (Fig. I.1) is the instance where alternating low pressure zones (blue colors)are generated on the downwind side of the stack, as shown in this figure.Fig. I.1 Vortex Shedding phenomenon induced by wind flowing over a cylinder.These alternating low pressure zones cause the stack to move towards the low pressure zone,causing movement perpendicular to the direction of the wind. When the critical wind speed of the stack is reached, these forces can cause the stack to resonate where large forces anddeflections are experienced.
 
Every stack has a critical wind speed at which vortex shedding occurs.Vortex shedding can be observed also at larger scale as a meteorological phenomenon.In [Fig. I.2] is shown an image taken from space of the vortex shedding phenomenon behindthe island Juan Fernandez along the Chilean rim.
 
Structural Vortex Shedding Response Estimation Methodology and Finite Element Simulation
2
Fig. I.2 Vortex Shedding as a meteorological phenomenon.Vortex shedding is a complex physical phenomenon, especially when it degenerates into lock-in condition. As large vibrations may occur at moderate and frequent wind velocities,structures may undergo a great number of stress cycles that lead to damage accumulation andmay determine structural failure without exceeding the ultimate limit stress.Considering the potential vortex shedding fatigue induced damage it is very important thedesign procedures to account in a realistic manner for the vortex shedding dynamic inducedloads.Although an immense analytical and experimental effort has been made during the last fiftyyears to improve the analytical vortex shedding prediction models, the design standards arestill lacking in presenting concise and easy to use analytical methodologies [3-13].Because of the complexity of vortex shedding phenomenon at this moment there is no generalanalytical method available to calculate the response of the structure to the vortex sheddingdynamic induced loads [2].Avery detailed comparison on wind induced response of major codes and standards was madeand presented by Working Group E – Dynamic Response set up at the First InternationalCodification Workshop held in Bochum, Germany on September 15
th
2000 [11].A comprehensive comparison of the along wind loads and their effects on structures wasconducted on the major international codes and standards: the US Standard – ASCE 7-98, 200[8], the Australian Standard – AS1170-2, 1989 [9], the National Building Code of Canada –  NBCC, 1995 [3], the Arhitectural Institute of Japan AIJ-RLB, 1993 [10] and the EuropeanStandard – Eurocode ENV1991-2-4 [6].The comparison study concluded that there are considerable scatter in predictions among thesestandards and is very important to understand the underlying differences in order to developunified international codes.An historical overview in the research and simulation areas of vortex shedding phenomenon is presented by Giovanni Solari [1].
 
Structural Vortex Shedding Response Estimation Methodology and Finite Element Simulation
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Some of the most important pioneering research contributions in the area of wind dynamicshave come from the University of Western Ontario (UWO) in Canada and the TechnicalUniversity Aachen (RWTH) in Germany.The Canadian research team was lead by Dr. Alan G. Davenport since 1965 when he foundedthe Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory. This laboratory has carried out innovativedesign studies for major structures. For example, of the 40 tallest buildings in the world,roughly two thirds have been studied at Western Ontario Boundary Layer Wind TunnelLaboratory.Dr. Davenport has pioneered in the application of boundary layer wind tunnels to the design of wind sensitive structures.The mathematical spectral model proposed by the Canadian research group is used as the basisfor the Canadian National Building Code [3]. It gives accurate results for relatively stiff structures, such as concrete chimneys, in which the aeroelastic effects are relatively small or moderate. For more flexible structures like steel tubular towers, antenna towers, transmissionor highmast towers some of the Canadian research team results are incorporated into CanadianBridge Design Code [4,5].The German team research is focused on accurate modeling of large aeroelastic effects and itis incorporated into Eurocode [6].As mentioned the study of dynamic response of vertical structures to vortex shedding begun inthe 60’s thanks to the pioneering contribution of Davenport. In his studies [16,17] he definedthe main parameters necessary to analyze the structural wind actions: mean static wind pressure, mean alongwind static displacement, gust response factor and equivalent static force.Studies developed in the 70’s by Vickery [18] and Simiu [19] perfected the methodintroduced by Davenport especially with respect to wind and aerodynamic modeling. On theother hand ESDU [20] and ECCS[21] introduced procedures to determine the maximumvalues of structural effects by using influence function techniques.Starting from Simiu’s formulation, at the beginning of 80’s, Solari derived closed for solutionsfor alongwind response of structures. He also developed the Equivalent Spectrum Technique[22], a method that schematizes the wind as an equivalent velocity field perfectly coherent inspace.Research carried out in 90’s followed two distinct lines. The first was aimed at determiningthe maximum effects due to alongwind response. The second extends original methods fromalongwind response to crosswind and torsional responses.The first research line derives from the observation that Equivalent Static Force (ESF), asconceived by Davenport and used by most subsequent authors, usually produces correct meanmaximum displacements but may give place to other effects like bending moments and shear forces.Efforts were made by Kaspersky [23] and Holmes [24,25] do develop new analytical methodsfor defining the ESF in a more realistic and simplified [26] manner.The second research line was aimed at determining the three-dimensional wind inducedresponse of structures.A wide research program was carried out in Japan [27] to derive the maximum alongwind,crosswind and torsional response of structures and their related ESF, by fitting the results of wind-tunnel tests.A study focused on slender structures and structural elements was initiated and coordinated byGiovanni Solari at Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering from University of 

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