Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
African Moors (Done)

African Moors (Done)

Ratings: (0)|Views: 132 |Likes:
Published by a_kim34

More info:

Published by: a_kim34 on May 21, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





The Appearance of the Original Berbers According to European PerceptionsAll the early major Berber tribes including the Masmuda, Sanhaja, Ketama Zenata and Nafusa are described asdark reddish brown like the “Indi’ or as “blacks” or Ethiopians in early documents. The notion of the earlyBerbers as being “whites” or Caucasoid is a new and racist one related to the concept of the African “Hamite”.Certainly the original Berber-speakers were never referred to as anything but “black” or something near it until the12th century and were otherwise considered the color of Abyssinians and other so called “Indi”.Kabyle GirlEven the Kabyles a notoriously fair-skinned “Berber” people of North Africa are up until the 19th centurydescribed as “brown” “apart from a few clans”. (See quotes below). The knowledge that Europeans were changingthe complexion literally and figuratively of North Africa up until the 19th century has disappeared from modernEuropean histories. Most know about the large part played by sub-saharan black slaves in the making of modern North Africa and Arabia while the white slave trade which was in fact dominant trade in North Africa until the fallof Constantinople (Istanbul in Turkey) in the 15th century had been largely ignored in historical writings of the20th. Yet it was only a few centuries ago that Europeans visiting North Africa commenting on the fact that, “onalmost every street of the cities of Barbary, Europeans could be seen harnessed to carts like draught horses or selling water from jars loaded on the backs of donkeys”.1809 Commentary on those called “Moors” by an early 19th century observer: “They carry the Christian captivesabout the desert to the different markets to sell them for they soon discover that their habits of life render themunserviceable , or very inferior to the black slaves of Timbuktoo. “ from An Account of the Empire of Marocco, by J. G. Jackson published 1809 and 1814.2003 – “From 1500 to 1650 when trans-Atlantic slaving was still in its infancy more Europeans were taken toBarbary than black African slaves to the Americas. See, Robert Davis Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: WhiteSlavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800, MacMillan Publishers, published 2003.The impact of the white slave trade and its contribution to the modern biology and appearance of the modern North African stems from before the Arabian and Muslim waves into Africa. The Roman ruler Claudian spokeconcerning Gildo, the “Moorish” ruler of Africa and treatment of Roman women from the Levant by this NorthAfrican chief and his countrymen:1
4th century – Claudian wrote, “ when tired of each noblest matron Gildo hands her over to the Moors. TheseSidonian mothers, married in Carthage city must needs mate with barbarians. He thrusts upon me an Ethiopian asa son-in law, a Berber as a husband. The hideous hybrid affrights its cradle.” Claudian, by Claudius Claudianus,translation by Maurice Platnauer, Published by G.P. Putnam’s sons, 1922 p. 113. (Gildo was brother to other Berber chiefs Firmus and Maseczel. Gildo is related to Aguellid or Galdi which remains the modern Tuarek wordfor chief. Masek, Amazigh ot Imoshagh was the name for the ancient and modern Tuareg clans in general. TheMezikes tribes were called “Ethiopians” in a Roman text of the time. )Kayble boy11stt c. A.D. – “Diodorus Siculus speaks in reference to the expedition of Agathocles a Sardinian general, of threeLibyan tribes on the coast of Tunisia, the Micatani and Zufoni (see Zafan ),who were nomads and the Asfodelodi,who by the color of their skin resembled the Ethiopians” , p. 50 The Mediterranean Race Book XX, 38, 57Guiseppe Sergi, 1901. The Micatani were also called Ukutameni and Khethim by Josephus. In later writings theyare called Ketama Berbers. The name Maketa or Imakitan remains a name for the eastern branches of the Tuareg.1st century A.D.– Marcus Valerian Martial was one of the earliest Europeans to use the phrase “woolly hair like aMoor” in one of his Satires, and the phrase was commonly used up until the Middle Ages. See Nature Knows NoColor Line by J.A. Rogers, 1952. p. 50 The Muslim era didn’t begin until the birth of Muhammed, the Prophet,over four centuries after Martial. By the 7th century the word came to be used for Arabians who in the early era of Islam for the most part were also described as of near “black” complexion.1st century Silius Italicus also describes the Moors with the term ‘Nigra’ meaning black. In the 3rd centuryRoman dramatist Platus or Plautus maintained the name Maure was a synonym for “Niger” which was a commonterm for the word black. 6th century Isidore Archbishop of Seville claimed the word Maure meant black accordingto Brunson and Runoko Rashidi in “The Moors in Antiquity” in Golden Age of the Moor, 1991.6th A.D.- Corippus uses the phrase “facies nigroque colorus” meaning faces or appearance of black color todescribe the North African Berbers. In his book Johannis, I/ 245.6th A.D. – Procopius in his History of the Wars book IV contrasting the Germanic Vandals who had settled in North Africa with the Maures claimed the Vandals were not “black skinned like the Maurusioi” . The tribes heclassified as Maurusioi are those now classified as ancient Berbers, the Numidians, Masaesyle, Gaitules, Massylesand Mezikes several other “Berber” tribes then settled between Tunisia and Morocco.After the 8th century the term Moor came to be used for the many Arabian clans who had invaded theMediterranean and Africa because of their complexions which were the same dark brown or near black to2
absolutely black color of the Berbers. ——————————————————————————————————– 1914 – Archeologists observance of the ancient North Africans portrayed in ancient Egyptian tomb paintings,“The brun Libyan type is the only one portrayed in the Old Empire, the xanthrochroids predominate in the NewEmpire representations.” P. 40 from The Eastern Libyan Oric Bates The intrusive xanthrochroids…do not appear  before the XII dynasty… It safe to say that they were immigrants.” from The Eastern Libyans by Oric Bates Frank Cass publishers 1914. pp. 40 and 41. (These paintings of the ancient Libyans as a brown in color are in the worksof Nina Davies.)1939 – “The extreme long-heads, concentrated in the Hoggar and in parts of the Algerian plateau are the Tuaregand the purer families of ancestral nomadic Berbers, preserving the head form which they brought from EastAfrica, their Hamitic homeland.” Carleton Coon The Races of Europe, p. 257 1979 reprint.Five major tribes of Berbers were spoken of by early Muslim writers including the Sanhaja, Masumuda Zenata,Ketama and Goddula which were categorized into dozens of others which in turn were divided into many more.Among them were the early Kabyles originally a group of Sanhaja Berbers. Most descriptions refer to the modernKabyles as fair-skinned, but in the 19th century and early 20th, descriptions and in fact many photographs depictthem as dark and near black. (Photos from the 19th century show both very dark-skinned and near white skinnedKabyle individuals from different villages in the region).1890 – “The Kabyles or Kabaily of Algerian and Tunisian territories…besides tillage, work the mines containedin their mountains…They live in huts made of branches of trees and covered with clay which resemble theMagalia of the old Numidians…They are of middle stature, their complexion brown and sometimes nearly black.”Written in The Encyclopedia Britannica: Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and General Literature Henry G. AllenCompany p. 261 Volume I 1890.1834 The Scotsman Thomas Campbell says, “The Kabyles…dress like the Arabs and a part from a few tribes, are brown complexioned and black haired” p. 109 Barbary and Enlightenment: European Attitudes Toward theMaghreb in the 18th Century, Ann Thomson. Published 1987 by E. J. BullA description by Gillebert d’Hercourt in Etudes Anthropologiques sur Soixante-Seize indigenes de lAlgerie in1865 said the Kabyle crania that were studied were generally dolichocephalic. In fact the physical anthropologicalstudies done on ancient and modern North Africans show that early North Africans were dolichocephalic like theTuareg and other dark-skinned berber tribes. Not surprisingly most modern Berber-speakers who are fair skinned including modern Kabyles are predominantlymesocephalic (middle headed) or even brachycephalic. It is interesting that the dress of these modern Kabylewomen resembles that modern women of the Balkans and that palm and blood group types are also like those of European Mediterranean Greeks. Many of these Kabyles also have a strong Turkish influence as judged from therecognizable Turkish Eurasian or even East Asian facial features. Obviously some groups other than a Berber onemakes up the main genetic strain in many modern Kabyle-speakers. Culturally the modern fair-skinned Kabyleshave been documented as among the most patrifocal people in North Africa whereas the ancient and modernBerbers like the Tuareg were notably matrilineal and matrifocal to the chagrin of early Muslim documenters whoconsidered this among their ‘wicked” customs.1901 – The Oases if Nafzawa and Wed Suef and Wed Regh and other Berbers of the Sus as “of very dark complexion” in Guiseppi Sergi The Mediterranean Race: The Study of the origin of European peoples The Walter Scott Publishing Company3

Activity (5)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
Jah Heru Uhuru liked this
Abba Lord liked this
Bamumona liked this
Abba Lord liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->