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SMU MBA Semester 2 Spring 2012 drive Solved Assignments

SMU MBA Semester 2 Spring 2012 drive Solved Assignments

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This is a paid service. If you want to buy the solved assignments & projects , please contact us at support@smuassignments.com. Or visit our website www.smuassignments.com
This is a paid service. If you want to buy the solved assignments & projects , please contact us at support@smuassignments.com. Or visit our website www.smuassignments.com

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Published by: Rajdeep Kumar on May 21, 2012
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Feb/Spring 2012MBA Semester-2MB0044: Production and Operations ManagementAssignment Set - 1 (60 Marks)Q1. Explain briefly the Computer Integrated Manufacturing.Computer Integrated Manufacturing
Computer Integrated Manufacturing, known as CIM, is the phrase used to describe thecomplete automation of a manufacturing plant, with all processes functioning under computercontrol and digital information tying them together. It was promoted by machine toolmanufacturers in the 1980's and the Society for Manufacturing Engineers (CASA/SME). Quiteoften it was mistaken for the concept of a "lights out" factory. It includes CAD/CAM, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, CAPP, computer-aided process planning, CNC,computer numerical control machine tools, DNC, direct numerical control machine tools, FMS,flexible machining systems, ASRS, automated storage and retrieval systems, AGV, automatedguided vehicles, use of robotics and automated conveyance, computerized scheduling andproduction control, and a business system integrated by a common data base.Integration occurs when a broad range of manufacturing and supporting activities are linked.CIM is the complete automation of a manufacturing plant, with all processes functioning undercomputer control and digital information tying them together. The three major functions inmanufacturing are production, design, and management function. Production function convertsresources into products. The design function transforms customer specifications into design.Finally the management functions plan and control production activities. The three computeraids in CIM are:
Computer aid to the production function (automated flow of materials)
Computer aid to the design function (automated flow of technological information)
Computer aid to the management function (automated flow of managerial information)When it comes to production, CIMs are included in different areas of production process suchas in engineering design, production planning, shop control, order processing, material control,distribution and many other areas. Information flow across all the functions takes place with thehelp of computers. Transmission, processing, distribution, and feedback happen almost in realtime so that intended activities are conducted rapidly.CIM process helps in rapid production and also reduces indirect costs. CIM uses computers tocontrol the entire production process. This integration allows the processes to exchangeinformation with each other and thus they become capable of initiating actions. As responsetimes decrease, customer satisfaction increases resulting in better business. CIM helps in
avoiding accumulation of materials resulting in better throughput and better utilisation of space.Bar coded labels that accompany materials contain instructions for processing them which areread by sensing devices and display the status on monitors. This information is available to allconcerned personnel responsible in planning, marketing and other activities so that they will beaware of the status of any order. If expediting is needed to meet deadlines, they will be able toseek intervention. Identifying shortages and ensuring faster deliveries become easy with CIM.Thus, CIM is an important aspect of technology in manufacturing. Almost 40 percent ofmanufacturing companies are now using one or more elements of CIM technologyThe heart of computer integrated manufacturing is CAD/CAM. Computer-aided design(CAD)and computer-aided manufacturing(CAM) systems are essential to reducing cycle times in theorganization. CAD/CAM is a high technology integrating tool between design andmanufacturing. CAD techniques make use of group technology to create similar geometries forquick retrieval. Electronic files replace drawing rooms. CAD/CAM integrated systems providedesign/drafting, planning and scheduling, and fabrication capabilities. CAD provides theelectronic part images, and CAM provides the facility for toolpath cutters to take on the rawpiece.The computer graphics that CAD provides allows designers to create electronic images whichcan be portrayed in two dimensions, or as a three dimensional solid component or assemblywhich can be rotated as it is viewed. Advanced software programs can analyze and test designsbefore a prototype is made. Finite element analysis programs allow engineers to predict stresspoints on a part, and the effects of loading.Once a part has been designed, the graphics can be used to program the tool path to machinethe part. When integrated with an NC postprocessor, the NC program that can be used in aCNC machine is produced. The design graphics can also be used to design tools and fixtures,and for inspections by coordinate measuring machines. The more downstream use that is madeof CAD, the more time that is saved in the overall process.Generative process planning is an advanced generation of CAD/CAM. This uses a morepowerful software program to develop a process plan based on the part geometry, the numberof parts to be made, and information about facilities in the plant. It can select the best tool andfixture, and it can calculate cost and time.Flexible machining systems (FMS) are extensions of group technology and cellularmanufacturing concepts. Using integrated CAD/CAM, parts can be designed and programmedin half the time it would normally take to do the engineering. The part programs can bedownloaded to a CNC machining center under the control of an FMS host computer. The FMShost can schedule the CNC and the parts needed to perform the work. Computer integratedmanufacturing can include different combinations of the tools listed above.
Q2. What is automation? What are the kinds of automation?
For services, automation usually means labour saving devices In education, long distancelearning technology helps in supplementing class room instruction. The facilitating goods thatare used are web site and videos. Automation in the banking sector has resulted in ATMs whichsave the banks a huge amount of labour and it is found to have given greater customersatisfaction. Automation is ideal when the service provided or the product manufactured ishighly standardized. Some extent of automation can be designed even with customization i.e.product or service s meant to produce or deliver low volumes specific to a requirement. Theadvantage of automation is it has low variability and will be more consistent on a repetitivebasis. On the shop floor variability causes loss of quality.Automation is the use ofcontrol systemsandinformation technologiesto reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. In the scope ofindustrialization, automation is a step beyondmechanization.Whereas mechanization provides human operatorswithmachineryto assist them with the muscular requirements of work, automation greatlydecreases the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Automation plays anincreasingly important role in theworld economyand in daily experience.Automation has had a notable impact in a wide range of industries beyond manufacturing(where it began). Once have been replaced largely by automated telephone switchboards andanswering machines. Medical processes such as primary screening in electrocardiography orradiography and laboratory analysis of human genes, sera, cells, and tissues are carried out atmuch greater speed and accuracy by automated systems. Automated teller machines havereduced the need for bank visits to obtain cash and carry out transactions. In general,automation has been responsible for the shift in the world economy from industrial jobs toservice jobs in the 20th and 21st centuries.
Advantages of Automation:
Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous work.
Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments (i.e. fire, space, volcanoes,nuclear facilities, underwater, etc.)
Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed, endurance,etc.
Economy improvement: Automation may improve in economy of enterprises, society ormost of humanity. For example, when an enterprise invests in automation, technologyrecovers its investment; or when a state or country increases its income due toautomation like Germany or Japan in the 20th Century.
Reduces operation time and work handling time significantly.
Frees up workers to take on other roles.
Provides higher level jobs in the development, deployment, maintenance and running ofthe automated processes.

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