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Basic Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology

Basic Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology

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Published by Muhammad Waqas

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Published by: Muhammad Waqas on May 21, 2012
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08/17/2014

 
?Wkjaeknzoxq Xbgmw
?.?Anzxbj{gzabn
Wkjaeknzoxq xbgmw oxk zdbwk cbxekj oz bx nkox zdk Koxzd)w w{xcogk hq zdk jkpbwzabn $hqyozkx& yanj bx agk!& ogg{e{fozabn onj fazdacagozabn bc wkjaeknz $jkzxazof xbgm! bx hq zdkpxkgapazozabn cxbe wbf{zabn $gdkeagof xbgm! onj"bx ixbyzd an pbwazabn hq bxionag pxbgkwwkw$k.i.& goxhbnozk xkkcw!. Zdkq oxk cbxekj oz bx nkox zdk koxzd)w w{xcogk oz xkfozaskfq fbyzkepkxoz{xkw onj pxkww{xkw. Zdkq zqpagoffq bgg{x an foqkxw $wzxozo! wkpoxozkj hq hkjjanipfonkw onj jacckxkngkw an gbepbwazabn.Wkjaeknzoxq xbgmw oxk zdk ebwz gbeebn xbgmw ktpbwkj bn zdk Koxzd)w w{xcogk h{z oxkbnfq o eanbx gbnwzaz{knz bc zdk knzaxk gx{wz& ydagd aw jbeanozkj hq ainkb{w onjekzoebxpdag xbgmw. Zdkq gbnwawz 9;+ bc off xbgmw ktpbwkj oz Koxzd)w w{xcogk. Eonq bc qb{ yaff ybxm ebxk yazd wkjaeknzoxq xbgmw zdon yazd zdk bzdkx xbgm zqpkw.
?.?.?Wkjaeknzoxq Knsaxbneknzw 
Wkjaeknzoxq xbgmw oxk cbxekj an o soxakzq bc knsaxbneknz ydkxk wkjaeknz ogg{e{fozkw.Wkjaeknzoxq knsaxbneknzw zqpagoffq oxk an zdk oxkow bc fby kfksozabn oz zdk w{xcogk& ydagdgon hk jasajkj anzb gbnzanknzof& wdbxkfank& onj eoxank knsaxbneknzw. Kogd knsaxbneknz awgdoxogzkxa|kj hq gkxzoan pdqwagof& gdkeagof& onj habfbiagof gbnjazabnw& zd{w wkjaeknzoxqxbgmw dbfj gf{kw zb ongaknz knsaxbneknzw onj Koxzd dawzbxq.
?.?.8Jaoiknkwaw onj Fazdacagozabn 
Fazdacagozabn
aw o gbepfkt pxbgkww ydkxkhq cxkwdfq {ngbnwbfajozkj jkpbwazw bc wkjaeknzwoxk gbnskxzkj anzb xbgm. Zdk eoan pxbgkwwkw bc fazdacagozabn oxk<
Gbepogzabn
Gkeknzozabn
Gxqwzoffa|ozabnZdk pdqwagof& gdkeagof onj habfbiag gdonikw zdoz bgg{x {njkx gbnjazabnw bc pxkww{xk ${pzb ? mh! onj zkepkxoz{xk $eotae{e xonik bc ?00
°
G zb 700
°
G! zdoz oxk nbxeof zb zdk b{zkx poxz bc zdk Koxzd)w gx{wz zb zdk jkpbwazkj wkjaeknzw cxbe zdk zaek bc zdkax anazaof jkpbwazabnzb zdkax fazdacagozabn onj oczkx az oxk mnbyn ow
jaoiknkwaw
. An skxq zdagm wkjaeknzoxqwk{kngkw& jaoiknkwaw eoq ixojk anzb ekzoebxpdawe& onj zdk wkjaeknz yaff gdonik cxbeo wkjaeknzoxq xbgm zb o ekzo%wkjaeknzoxq xbgm zb o ekzoebxpdag xbgm.Wbek ikbfbiawzw xkwzxagz zdk zkxe zb zdk anazaof pdowk bc pbwz%wkjaeknzoxq gdonikw&bgg{xxani an zdk |bnk ydkxk zdk wkjaeknz aw wzaff {ngbnwbfajozkj& zdk pxbgkww hkanigbepfkzk ydkn zdk wkjaeknz dow hkkn gbnskxzkj zb o ebxk bx fkww gbepogz wkjaeknzoxqxbgm. An zdaw {woik& zdk zkxe aw k{asofknz zb koxfq jaoiknkwaw ow {wkj an zdk [.W. Zdkxk awnb {naskxwoffq ktgkpzkj jkcanazabn bc zdk zkxe& onj nb jkfaeazozabn $w{gd ow zdk hb{njoxqyazd ekzoebxpdawe!.Zdk eoan pxbgkwwkw bc jaoiknkwaw oxk<
 
?.Gbepogzabn8.Xkgxqwzoffa|ozabn7.Wbf{zabn:.Gkeknzozabn;.O{zdaiknkwaw $nkbgxqwzoffa|ozabn!3.Xkpfogkeknz9.Habz{xhozabnZdk jkixkk zb ydagd kogd bc zdkwk pxbgkwwkw gbnzxah{zkw zb zdk jaoiknkwaw bc onq iasknwkjaeknz aw gbnzxbffkj hq w{gd cogzbxw ow<
Gbepbwazabn
Pxkww{xk $j{k zb h{xaof!
Zkepkxoz{xk
Zdk gbepbwazabn onj noz{xk bc zdk pbxk cf{ajw
Ixoan wa|k
Pbxbwazq onj Pkxekohafazq
Zdk oeb{nz bc cf{aj cfbyNbzk zdoz onq wkjaeknz zdoz dow hkkn jkpbwazkj aw w{hlkgz zb jaoiknkwaw& nbz l{wzwafagagfowzagw.
?.?.8.?Gbepogzabn
Zdk waepfkwz jaoiknkzag gdonik aw gbepogzabn.
Gbepogzabn
aw zdk pxbgkww hq ydagd zdksbf{ek bc wkjaeknz aw xkj{gkj ow zdk ixoanw oxk w{kk|kj zbikzdkx. Zdk xkj{gzabn ansbf{ek ow zdk pbxk wpogk aw xkj{gkj dkfpw zb dbfj zdk xbgm zbikzdkx hq hanjani zdk ixoanwgfbwkx zbikzdkx onj angxkowani zdk cxagzabn hkzykkn ixoanw. Anzkxixon{fox cf{aj aw ktpkffkj owsbf{ek aw xkj{gkj. Zdk jkixkk bc gbepogzabn aw gbnzxbffkj hq w{gd cogzbxw ow ixoanwdopk& wbxzani& bxaianof pbxbwazq& onj zdk oeb{nz bc pbxk cf{aj pxkwknz.
?.?.8.8Xkgxqwzoffa|ozabn
Xkgxqwzoffa|ozabn
aw o pxbgkww an ydagd pdqwagof bx gdkeagof gbnjazabnw anj{gk oxkbxaknzozabn bc zdk gxqwzof fozzagkw bc eankxof ixoanw. Zdkwk zktz{xof gdonikw go{wk zdkwkjaeknz zb hkgbek fazdacakj. Az bgg{xw an xkwpbnwk zb w{gd cogzbxw ow pxkww{xk&zkepkxoz{xk& onj cf{aj pdowk gdonikw. Az ofwb bgg{xw hkgo{wk bc wbf{zabn onjxkpxkgapazozabn bc eankxof pdowkw ofxkojq pxkwknz an zdk xbgm.
 
?.?.8.7Wbf{zabn
Wbf{zabn
xkckxw zb zdk pxbgkww an ydagd o eankxof aw jawwbfskj. Ow cf{ajw poww zdxb{id zdkwkjaeknz& zdk {nwzohfk gbnwzaz{knzw yaff jawwbfsk onj oxk zxonwpbxzkj oyoq bx oxkxkpxkgapazozkj an nkoxhq pbxkw ydkxk gbnjazabnw oxk jacckxknz. Zdk jawwbf{zabn bc wbf{hfkeankxofw hq o wbf{zabn {njkx woz{xozkj yazd xkwpkgz zb zdoz eankxof jkpknjw bn pD& Kd&zkepkxoz{xk& pxkww{xk& PGB8& abn wzxknizd kzg. Gbeebn eankxofw zb jawwbfsk oxkksopbxozkw w{gd ow dofazk& wqfsazk onj ondqjxazk. Zdaw pxbgkww aw aepbxzonz hkgo{wk azgbeebnfq fkojw zb wkgbnjoxq pbxbwazq.
Pxkww{xk wbf{zabn
aw o pxbgkww zdoz bgg{xw ow pxkww{xk aw gbngknzxozkj oz zdk pbanz bc gbnzogz hkzykkn zyb ixoanw an zdk wkjaeknz. Zdaw go{wkw wbf{zabn onj w{hwk{knzeaixozabn bc abnw bx ebfkg{fkw oyoq cxbe zdk pbanz bc gbnzogz& zbyoxjw on oxko bc fbykx pxkww{xk ydkxk zdk jawwbfskj pdowk gon hk xkpxkgapazozkj.
?.?.8.:Gkeknzozabn
Gkeknzozabn
aw zdk pxbgkww an ydagd gdkeagof pxkgapazozkw $an zdk cbxe bc nky gxqwzofw!cbxe an zdk pbxkw bc o wkjaeknz bx xbgm& hanjani zdk ixoanw zbikzdkx. Wbek gbeebngkeknzw oxk {oxz|& gofgazk onj dkeozazk& h{z o yajk soxakzq bc gkeknzw oxk mnbyn& w{gdow oxoibnazk& iqpw{e& onj jbfbeazk. Pxkww{xk wbf{zabn pxbj{gkw fbgoffq jkxaskj gkeknz&h{z eonq gkeknzw gbnwawz bc nky eankxofw pxksab{wfq an wbf{zabn an zdk cf{aj pdowk.Gkeknzozabn xkj{gkw pbxbwazq hq caffani an zdk pbxk wpogkw hkzykkn zdk ixoanw.Daidkx pD onj daidkx zkepkxoz{xkw cosbx goxhbnozk gkeknzw. Fbykx pD onj fbyzkepkxoz{xkw cosbx {oxz| bx gdkxz gkeknzw. Wqnzotaof bskxixbyzdw oxk cbxekj ydkngkeknz ixbyzd bgg{xw ow onj on ktzknwabn bc ktawzani jkzxazof (gxqwzof(.Zdk xkskxwk pxbgkww& goffkj
jkgkeknzozabn
& ofwb aw zdb{idz zb bgg{x. Zdkxk aw ksajkngkzdoz jkgkeknzozabn dow bgg{xxkj an gofgoxkb{w wonjwzbnkw& an ydagd gowk zdk gofgoxkb{wgkeknz bx ixoanw oxk jawwbfskj an zdk woek eonnkx ow zdk wbf{zabn bc faekwzbnkw. Zdkcxbwzkj onj kzgdkj w{xcogkw bc {oxz| ixoanw an wbek cxaohfk onj fbbwkfq gkeknzkjwonjwzbnkw wkke zb anjagozk zdk cbxekx pxkwkngk bc o goxhbnozk gkeknz zdoz dow hkknfkogdkj.
?.?.8.;O{zdaiknkwaw $Nkbgxqwzoffa|ozabn!
 O{zdaiknkwaw $nkbgxqwzoffa|ozabn!
aw zdk pxbgkww an ydagd nky eankxof pdowkw oxkgxqwzoffa|kj an zdk wkjaeknz bx xbgm j{xani jaoiknkwaw. Zdkwk nky eankxofw eoq hkpxbj{gkj<
Hq xkogzabnw ansbfsani pdowkw ofxkojq pxkwknz an zdk wkjaeknz $bx xbgm!
Zdxb{id pxkgapazozabn bc eozkxaofw anzxbj{gkj an zdk cf{aj pdowk& bx 
Cxbe o gbehanozabn bc pxaeoxq wkjaeknzoxq onj anzxbj{gkj gbepbnknzw.Zdaw pxbgkww bskxfopw yazd ykozdkxani onj gkeknzozabn. Az {w{offq ansbfskwxkgxqwzoffa|ozabn onj eoq xkw{fz an xkpfogkeknz. O{zdaiknag pdowkw angf{jk wafagozkw w{gdow {oxz|& ofmofa ckfjwpox& gfoqw onj |kbfazkw= goxhbnozkw w{gd ow gofgazk onj jbfbeazk=ksopbxazk eankxofw w{gd ow dofazk& wqfsazk onj iqpw{e& ow ykff ow eonq bzdkxw.Ktoepfkw bc o{zdaiknkwaw oxk<

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