present-day Peru, in the departments of Ancash, Huanuco, Pasco, Junin, and northeast-ern areas of the department of Lima (see Figure 2). QII varieties (also referred to asSouthern and Northern Quechua) extend from the QI regions as far north as southeasternColombia and as far south as northern Chile and Argentina. This is not a continuousQuechua region however; for instance, Quechua is spoken only in pockets of northernPeru and in isolated communities in Colombia. In Ecuador, however, there is a more con-tinuous, extended territory of Quechua speakers along the Andes mountains and in part of the Amazon basin. QII dialects also extend to the south of the QI region, from the north-eastern and southeastern parts of Yauyos province (department of Lima), through Boliviato northwestern Argentina and northeastern Chile (Cerron-Palomino 1987: 227-228).The greatest numbers of Quechua speakers are found in the highland Andean regionsof Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador, in that order. However, Quechua is not the only indigenouslanguage spoken in these countries; as Figure 2 suggests, Aymara is the second mostwidely spoken indigenous language in South America, and there are many other indige-nous languages with smaller numbers of speakers in use throughout the region as well.Spanish has exercised considerable influence over the fortunes of Quechua, and indeed,over all indigenous languages on the continent. In previous centuries, larger numbers of indigenous languages existed in the Andean regions. As Adelaar has observed (1991:45), South America is presently home to a comparatively small number of languageswhich exhibit "unsurpassed genetic variety," a fact that suggests that many languageshave already been lost. A major contention of this paper is that, with careful planning,Quechua need not suffer the same fate.
2. Quechua language shift, maintenance, and revitalization
Language shift is generally defined as the gradual loss of a language within a community,which can ultimately lead to language death (Dorian 1981; Fasold 1992). Language main-tenance, in contrast, refers to relative stability in domains of use, and number, distribution,and proficiency of speakers in a speech community. Language revitalization, renewal, or reversing language shift, in turn, imply recuperating and reconstructing features of a lan-guage or its use which are at least partially lost. One notable distinction is that languageshift and death, in contrast to language revitalization, are often considered to be process-es that "just happen" to the speakers, community, or language; that is, the speech com-munity in question makes no conscious, explicit decisions on the matter (Homberger andKing 1996, 1998, 2001), although individual speakers may do so.Factors contributing to language shift, maintenance, or revitalization are diverse andcomplex, making the science of prediction elusive if not impossible, though scholars haveproposed numerous models and typologies of relevant factors. These models have includ-ed demographic, sociological, linguistic, psychological, historical, political, geographic, ed-ucational, cultural, religious, economic, and media influences on the speakers, their lan-guage, and the setting (Conklin and Lourie 1983: 174-175; Edwards 1992; Giles et al.1977). While these models shed some light
on the forces which may come into play incontexts of shift, all suffer from limitations and "none allows us to predict a shift
(King 2000: 15). Addressing such shortcomings, Gal and others have argued that a satis-factory understanding of language shift will not be gained by building increasingly complexmodels, but rather by placing language shift "within a broader framework of expressiveand symbolically used linguistic variation" (Gal 1979: 3). Given the great importance of lin-guistic ideologies, language attitudes, and issues of identity in influencing language-usepatterns and language-planning efforts, we address these forces at the outset. The bodyof this section then considers the physical, social, and cultural dislocations (Fishman1991: 55-65) affecting Quechua language shift, maintenance, and revitalization.
International Journal of the Sociology of Language 167 (2004):