Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
P. 1
Ex One Rations Us 1989 2012 Full Report

Ex One Rations Us 1989 2012 Full Report

Ratings: (0)|Views: 426 |Likes:
Published by scprweb

More info:

Published by: scprweb on May 21, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/25/2012

pdf

text

original

 
 
Exonerations in the United States, 1989 – 2012Report by the National Registry of Exonerations
May, 2012
Samuel R. Gross
Thomas & Mabel Long Professor of LawUniversity of Michigan Law SchoolEditor, National Registry of Exonerations734-764-1519srgross@umich.edu
Michael Shaffer
University of Michigan Law School, Class of 2011michael.william.shaffer@gmail.com
 
 
National Registry of Exonerations
This is the first Report from the
National Registry of Exonerations
, a joint project of theUniversity of Michigan Law School and the Center on Wrongful Convictions at NorthwesternUniversity School of Law.The Registry can be found atexonerationregistry.org. It includes detailed information on the 873individual exonerations in the United States from January, 1989, through the end of February,2012, that are the main subject of the Report that follows.We will maintain this website on an ongoing basis, adding cases as we learn about them, bothnew exonerations that have not yet occurred and old ones that we do not now know about. Ourcurrent total is 891. We will issue periodic reports on the cases that are listed in the Registry.We welcome corrections and suggestions of any sort. We especially welcome information aboutexonerations that have not come to our attention. One important conclusion of the Report is thatthere are many more exonerations than we know about. We hope that readers and visitors to theweb site will let us know about cases that we have missed, and about errors or omissions in casesthat we do report.
Samuel R. Gross
Professor of LawUniversity of MichiganEditor, National Registry of Exonerations
 Rob Warden
Executive DirectorCenter on Wrongful ConvictionsNorthwestern University School of LawMay 20, 2012
 
Exonerations in the U.S., 1989-2012 5/20/2012
i
Table of ContentsTable of Contents ................................................................................................................................. i
 
Acknowledgments .............................................................................................................................. iii
 
I. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1
 
II. The Cases ........................................................................................................................................ 6
 
1. The Definition of “Exoneration” .................................................................................................. 6
 
2. Who’s Exonerated, and by What Procedure ................................................................................. 7
 
3. Exonerations Found and Exonerations Missed ............................................................................. 9
 
4. Limitations .................................................................................................................................. 10
 
(i) Misclassification .................................................................................................................... 11
 
(a) Guilty defendants misclassified as innocent. ..................................................................... 11
 
(b) Innocent defendants misclassified as guilty. ..................................................................... 12
 
(ii) Underinclusion ...................................................................................................................... 14
 
III. Basic Patterns ............................................................................................................................. 18
 
1. Exonerations by Crime ............................................................................................................... 18
 
2. Exonerations over Time .............................................................................................................. 20
 
3. DNA and Non-DNA exonerations .............................................................................................. 22
 
4. Time to Exoneration ................................................................................................................... 24
 
5. Gender ......................................................................................................................................... 29
 
6. Race............................................................................................................................................. 30
 
7. Exonerations by Jurisdiction ....................................................................................................... 32
 
(i) Exonerations by state ............................................................................................................. 32
 
(ii) Exonerations by county ......................................................................................................... 35
 
IV. Some Causes of False Convictions ............................................................................................ 40
 
1. Overview .................................................................................................................................... 40
 
(i) Overall patterns ..................................................................................................................... 40
 
(ii) Missing data; ineffective legal defense ................................................................................ 41
 
2. Witnesses: Mistakes and Lies ..................................................................................................... 43
 
(i) Eyewitness errors ................................................................................................................... 43
 
(a) Suggestiveness. .................................................................................................................. 44
 
(b) Number of eyewitnesses. ................................................................................................... 46
 
(c) Initial suspicion. ................................................................................................................ 47
 
(d) Cross-racial identification. ................................................................................................ 48
 
(ii) Eyewitness lies ...................................................................................................................... 50
 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->